BCI 50-ha plot taxonomy

R. Condit, R. Pérez, S. Lao, S. Aguilar, S. Hubbell, R. Foster

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All tree species names used in the BCI 50-ha plot, current and obsolete

All 472 Latin names that have been used for the 328 taxa in the plot. Each name is flagged with Status=Accepted for those in use in May,2018 or Status=Obsolete for past names. Accompanying notes describe taxonomic changes. For every species, the current name and Authority are given. For those with Status=Obsolete, the current name differs. Some notes on taxonomy are those taxa that have changed. The 1996 paper often mention is the first publication listing all species in the plot, and any name appearing in that paper's table, and changed since, is cross-referenced mentioned here. The 2004 paper likewise mentioned was the second listing most taxa, and again names appearing there are cross-referenced. Many other references are cited, but that bibliography is still not finished. Clicking a column will sort, and any name can be entered in the Search box to filter on it. This table can be downloaded from a Smithsonian library archive.

LatinStatusCurrentMnemonicFamilyAuthorityNotes
Abarema macradeniaAcceptedAbarema macradeniapit1maFabaceae-mimosoideae(Pittier) Barneby & J.W. GrimesFormerly Pithecellobium macradenium and appeared in 1996 paper under that old name. Pithecellobium was an enormously broad mix of of many taxa. Barnebey and Grimes (1996) did a detailed phylogeny of Ingeae, many of which (except Inga and Calliandra) were once Pithecellobium. The genus revisions do not alter species boundaries here.
Acacia melanocerasObsoleteVachellia melanocerasacacmeFabaceae-mimosoideaeBeurl.See Acacia discussion with Vachellia melanoceras.
Acalypha diversifoliaAcceptedAcalypha diversifoliaacaldiEuphorbiaceaeJacq.
Acalypha macrostachyaAcceptedAcalypha macrostachyaacalmaEuphorbiaceaeJacq.
Adelia trilobaAcceptedAdelia trilobaade1trEuphorbiaceae(Müll.Arg.) Hemsl.
Aegiphila panamensisAcceptedAegiphila panamensisaegipaLamiaceaeMoldenke
Alchornea costaricensisAcceptedAlchornea costaricensisalchcoEuphorbiaceaePax & K.Hoffm.
Alchornea latifoliaAcceptedAlchornea latifoliaalchlaEuphorbiaceaeSw.
Alibertia dwyeriAcceptedAlibertia dwyeriboropaRubiaceaeDelprete & C.H.Perss.Formerly B. panamensis. Entire genus of Borojoa, with 3 species, collapsed into Alibertia, without any changes in species boundaries. The name dwyeri was necessary because there is another A. panamensis. There was a single sapling in this taxon since 1982 (died in 2015), but the name is not in Croat nor the 1996 paper. It must have been identified later?
Alibertia edulisAcceptedAlibertia edulisalibedRubiaceae(Rich.) A.Rich. ex DC.
Allophylus psilospermusAcceptedAllophylus psilospermusallopsSapindaceaeRadlk.
Alseis blackianaAcceptedAlseis blackianaalseblRubiaceaeHemsl.
Amaioua corymbosaAcceptedAmaioua corymbosaamaicoRubiaceaeKunth
Anacardium excelsumAcceptedAnacardium excelsumanacexAnacardiaceae(Bertero & Balb. ex Kunth) Skeels
Anaxagorea panamensisAcceptedAnaxagorea panamensisanaxpaAnnonaceaeStandl.
Andira inermisAcceptedAndira inermisandiinFabaceae-papilionoideae(W. Wright) Kunth ex DC.
Annona acuminataAcceptedAnnona acuminataannoacAnnonaceaeSaff.
Annona hayesiiAcceptedAnnona hayesiiannohaAnnonaceaeSaff.
Annona spragueiAcceptedAnnona spragueiannospAnnonaceaeSaff.
Apeiba asperaObsoleteApeiba membranaceaapeimeMalvaceaeAubl.Much confusion about identification of Apeiba glabra/membranacea/aspera. A. aspera is invalid. A. glabra is only Brazil and Guiana Shield. The BCI species is A. membrancea, but we mistakenly took this name from 2004 through 2015.
Apeiba hybridAcceptedApeiba hybridapeihyMalvaceae
Apeiba membranaceaAcceptedApeiba membranaceaapeimeMalvaceaeSpruce ex Benth.This is Croat's name and is the accepted name for a widespread Central and South American species. But A. membranacea has regularly been misidentified as A. aspera, leading us to use that incorrect name for a period. We used A. membranaceae correctly through the 1996 paper, but then the incorrect A. aspera in the 2004 paper. We have now restored the correct A. membranacea.
Apeiba tibourbouAcceptedApeiba tibourbouapeitiMalvaceaeAubl.
Aphelandra sinclairianaAcceptedAphelandra sinclairianaaphesiAcanthaceaeNees
Appunia seibertiiAcceptedAppunia seibertiiappuseRubiaceaeStandl.Not in Croat but identified in 1982 census, and we used in the 1996 paper; now we have reverted to it as of 2017. Steyermark (1972) and Taylor and Steyermark (Flora of NG Shield) moved Appunia within a broad Morinda, but others, however, maintained Appunia separate. Later DNA phylogeny (Razafimandimbison 2009, 2011) shows Morinda to be polyphyletic. They decided to restore Appunia, and Tropicos follows this latest.
Ardisia bartlettiiAcceptedArdisia bartlettiiardibaMyrsinaceaeLundell
Ardisia fendleriObsoleteArdisia standleyanaardifeMyrsinaceaeLundellThis taxon in Ardisia is in a state of confusion. Croat used this name, and we published it in both 1996 and 2004 papers. However, Pipoly reidentified one BCI specimen as A. standleyana in the 1980s, Fl. Nic. and Man CR use A. standleyana. However, Ricketson and Pipoly reverted most BCI specimens to A. fendleri since 2006.
Ardisia guianensisAcceptedArdisia guianensisardiguMyrsinaceae(Aubl.) Mez
Ardisia standleyanaAcceptedArdisia standleyanaardifeMyrsinaceaeP.H.AllenThis was formely A. fendleri, and appeared as that old name in 1996 and 2004 papers. We switched to A. standleyana subsequently. There is confusion, though, as Ricketson and Pipoly reverted most BCI specimens to A. fendleri after 2006. Moreover, A. copeyana appears on one BCI specimen, though it is otherwise only at high elevation. Must check Man. CR and Fl. Nic.
Aspidosperma cruentaObsoleteAspidosperma desmanthumaspicrApocynaceaeThis was Croat’s name. It is a misspelling of A. cruentum, and we repeated the error in 1996 paper but corrected in 2004 paper.
Aspidosperma cruentumObsoleteAspidosperma desmanthumaspicrApocynaceaeWoodsonThis is the correct spelling of Croat’s name (he wrote A. cruenta), and we had it correct in 2004 paper. This became A. spruceanum for a time, then A. desmanthum, but returns to A. cruentum as of 2018.
Aspidosperma desmanthumAcceptedAspidosperma desmanthumaspicrApocynaceaeThis genus is now in a state of confusion, largely because a PhD dissertation finished in 1999 (K. Potgieter), which makes many revisions, has not been published, so multiple names are still around. Potgieter advises that A. desmanthum should be used for the common BCI species. In the past, we used three other names: A. cruenta, A. cruentum, and A. spruceanum. The first is a misspelling, following Croat, and we published it in both the 1996 and 2004 papers. To put a cap on this, confusion goes full circle in 2018, with Morales restoring A. cruentum to Panama records, including BCI, contra Potgieter.
Aspidosperma spruceanumObsoleteAspidosperma desmanthumaspicrApocynaceaeBenth. ex Müll.Arg.From as early as 1989, this name replaced A. cruentum for BCI specimens, mostly by Morales (see also Fl. Nic.). We started using it after 2004 in our database, but both 1996 and 2004 papers used the old misspelling, A. cruenta.
Astrocaryum standleyanumAcceptedAstrocaryum standleyanumast1stArecaceaeL.H.Bailey
Astronium graveolensAcceptedAstronium graveolensast2grAnacardiaceaeJacq.
Attalea butyraceaObsoleteAttalea rostratasch1zoArecaceae(Mutis ex L.f.) Wess.BoerWe originally called this Scheelea zonensis, following Croat, and used that name in the 1996 paper. Henderson subsumed Scheelea under Attalea, and also merged the C. America species (A. rostrata) with the S. American A. butyracea; we used the latter in the 2004 paper. Foster (pers. comm.) believes they are distinct in habitat, but otherwise similar. Garwood (2009) treats the BCI species as A. rostrata, but Tropicos treats all as butyracea
Attalea rostrataAcceptedAttalea rostratasch1zoArecaceaeOerst.Formerly Scheelea zonensis, and we published under that name in 1996 paper, then A. butyracea, which we used in 2004 paper. We are following Garwood, who used A. rostrata, the Central American form, distinct from S. American A. butyracea. Note that Tropicos still uses A. butyracea.
Bactris barronisAcceptedBactris barronisbactbaArecaceaeL.H.Bailey
Bactris coloniataAcceptedBactris coloniatabactc1ArecaceaeL.H.Bailey
Bactris coloradonisAcceptedBactris coloradonisbactc2ArecaceaeL.H.Bailey
Bactris majorAcceptedBactris majorbactmaArecaceaeJacq.
Banara guianensisAcceptedBanara guianensisbanaguSalicaceaeAubl.Croat includes this taxon, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until the 1990 census, and it subsequently died out.
Beilschmiedia pendulaObsoleteBeilschmiedia tovarensisbeilpeLauraceae(Sw.) Hemsl.Croat's identification, and the name we used for 30 years, including 1996 and 2004 paper. Reidentified as B. tovarensis in Nishida (1999) but we didn’t discover the change until later.
Beilschmiedia tovarensisAcceptedBeilschmiedia tovarensisbeilpeLauraceae(Klotzsch & H.Karst. ex Meisn.) Sachiko NishidaWe called this B. pendula for 30 years, and it appears under that name in 1996 and 2004 papers. But Nishida (1999) lists BCI specimens under B. tovarensis. He explains details of the differences at length, and they are subtle.
Bertiera guianensisAcceptedBertiera guianensisbertguRubiaceaeAubl.
Bombacopsis quinataObsoletePochota quinatapochquMalvaceaeThis was Croat’s name and we used it at the outset. Bombacopis has been in use for 100 years, but it has been debated about whether it is a synonym of Pochota or later, Pachira. Now this is back to Pochota quinata.
Bombacopsis sessilisObsoletePachira sessilispochseMalvaceaeThis was Croat’s name and we used it in 1982. Bombacopsis has been in use for 100 years, but it has been debated about whether it is a synonym of Pochota or later, Pachira. Now this is Pachira sessilis. See notes with Pachira quinata.
Borojoa panamensisObsoleteAlibertia dwyeriboropaRubiaceaeDwyerEntire genus of Borojoa, with 3 species, collapsed into Alibertia, without any changes in species boundaries. This species has 1 tree in 50-ha plot, but it was not in 1996 paper. Croat does not include Borojoa.
Brosimum alicastrumAcceptedBrosimum alicastrumbrosalMoraceaeSw.
Brosimum guianenseAcceptedBrosimum guianensebrosguMoraceae(Aubl.) HuberNote misspelling in Appendix, but not main table, of 1996 paper.
Calophyllum longifoliumAcceptedCalophyllum longifoliumcaloloClusiaceaeWilld.
Capparidastrum frondosumAcceptedCapparidastrum frondosumcappfrCapparaceae(Jacq.) Cornejo & IltisFormerly Capparis frondosa. See notes under that name.
Capparis frondosaObsoleteCapparidastrum frondosumcappfrCapparaceaeJacq.This was Croat's name, and we used in 1996 and 2004 papers. Currently Capparidastrum frondosum. Hall (2008) gives a thorough explanation of phylogeny in Capparis. The old-world species are a separate clade, not close to American. So the American Capparis have been divided into 4 genera. See also Cornejo and Iltis (2008).
Carica caulifloraObsoleteVasconcellea caulifloracaricaCaricaceaeCroat’s name for the wild species of papaya, but now moved to genus Vasconcellea (Badillo 2000 in Ernstia). It was not found in the 50-ha until 2010, but we identified in other plots in the 1990s and used this old name then.
Casearia aculeataAcceptedCasearia aculeatacaseacSalicaceaeJacq.
Casearia arboreaAcceptedCasearia arboreacasearSalicaceae(Rich.) Urb.
Casearia commersonianaAcceptedCasearia commersonianacasecoSalicaceaeCambess.
Casearia guianensisAcceptedCasearia guianensiscaseguSalicaceae(Aubl.) Urb.
Casearia sylvestrisAcceptedCasearia sylvestriscasesySalicaceaeSw.
Cassia fruticosaObsoleteSenna dariensissenndaFabaceae-caesalpinioideaeCroat's name, and we used it in 1982. Irwin and Barneby 1982 split Cassia into 3 genera, including Senna, and we had switched to S. dariensis by the late 1980s. Reviewed in Marazzi, with DNA phylogeny confirming monophyly of Senna. Croat indicates two forms on BCI but not distinct, one named C. f. var. gatunensis.
Cassipourea ellipticaAcceptedCassipourea ellipticacasselRhizophoraceae(Sw.) Poir.
Cavanillesia platanifoliaAcceptedCavanillesia platanifoliacavaplMalvaceae(Bonpl.) Kunth
Cecropia insignisAcceptedCecropia insigniscecrinUrticaceaeLiebm.
Cecropia longipesAcceptedCecropia longipescecrloUrticaceaePittierIncluded in Croat but did not appear in the 50-ha plot until 1995 census, so does not appear in 1996 paper.
Cecropia obtusifoliaAcceptedCecropia obtusifoliacecrobUrticaceaeBertol.
Cedrela odorataAcceptedCedrela odoratacedrodMeliaceaeL.
Ceiba pentandraAcceptedCeiba pentandraceibpeMalvaceae(L.) Gaertn.
Celtis schippiiAcceptedCeltis schippiiceltscCannabaceaeStandl.
Cespedesia macrophyllaObsoleteCespedesia spathulatacespmaOchnaceaeCroat's used this name, but he misspelled it Cespedezia macrophylla. Now lumped under C. spathulata. BCI specimens at Tropicos reidentified as C. spathulata in 1992 (Liesner).
Cespedesia spathulataAcceptedCespedesia spathulatacespmaOchnaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Planch.Formerly C. macrophylla. Cespedesia now considered monotypic, with nine names united under one widespread species. See Fl. Nic. We used the old species name, macrophylla, and Croat’s misspelling of the genus, so published this under Cespedezia macrophylla in both 1996 and 2004 papers.
Cespedezia macrophyllaObsoleteCespedesia spathulatacespmaOchnaceaeCroat used this incorrect spelling of Cespedesia macrophylla. We repeated the error in both 1996 and 2004 papers. On top of that, the species epithet was changed to C. spathulata (by 1992 at Tropicos, in 2001 Flora Nic), but we didn’t update our database until after 2004.
Cestrum megalophyllumObsoleteCestrum schlechtendahliicestmeSolanaceaeDunalCroat's name and we used in 1996 and 2004 papers. M. Nee (pers. comm.) and Hensold indicate this is a synonym of C. schlechtendahlii. Tropicos agrees. Must check published names (Knapp, Man CR??). Nee reidentified all Croat's BCI specimens as C. schlechtendahlii in 2013.
Cestrum racemosumAcceptedCestrum racemosumcestraSolanaceaeRuiz & Pav.Croat included this taxon, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until the 2015 census.
Cestrum schlechtendahliiAcceptedCestrum schlechtendahliicestmeSolanaceaeG.DonWe originally followed Croat and used C. megalophyllum in 1996 and 2004 papers. Nee reidentified all Croat's BCI specimens as C. schlechtendahlii in 2013. This is a question of name priority for same species circumpscription?? See Manual CR.
Chamaedorea tepejiloteAcceptedChamaedorea tepejilotecha1teArecaceaeLiebm.Formerly C. wendlandiana, but we switched by the 1996 paper. Lumped by Henderson (1997).
Chamaedorea wendlandianaObsoleteChamaedorea tepejilotecha1teArecaceaeCroat's original name, and we used it at the outset. By 1996 paper, we had changed to C. tepejilote. Henderson (1997) collapsed several tax into C. tepejilote.
Chamguava schippiiAcceptedChamguava schippiicha2scMyrtaceae(Standl.) LandrumA small group of 3 rare C. American species, formerly Eugenia, moved to Psidium in 1963, and we initially used Croat’s name, Psidium anglohondurense. The new genus Chamguava was erected in 1991 by Landrum based on embryological details that separate it from Psidium; Chamguava is in a small group with Pimenta. The BCI population is the only one known s. of Guatemala, and one of 3 species only seen 3 times in the 1940s. No change in species boundaries. Huge DNA phylogeny (2015) does not include Chamguava, presumably due to rarity.
Chimarrhis parvifloraAcceptedChimarrhis parviflorachimpaRubiaceaeStandl.
Chlorophora tinctoriaObsoleteMaclura tinctoriamacltiMoraceaeCurrently Maclura tinctoria, following Berg (2001). The two genus names, Chorophora and Maclura, were used in parallel during the 19th century for the species tinctoria. It was after 1962 that Chlorophora was finally and permanently moved under Maclura. Berg (2001) summarizes. Croat did not have this species under either name. D'Arcy used Chlorophora.
Chrysochlamys eclipesAcceptedChrysochlamys eclipeschr1ecClusiaceaeL.O.WilliamsWe originally followed Croat and used T. nicaraguensis, but now corrected to Chrysochlamys eclipses. We had switched to C. eclipes by 1996 paper, so no publication uses old name. See notes for T. nicaraguensis and Hammel (1999).
Chrysophyllum argenteumAcceptedChrysophyllum argenteumchr2arSapotaceaeJacq.We used this name by 1996 and 2004 papers. In Croat, this was Cynodendron panamense, but Pennington (1990) lumped several species under C. argenteum as a subspecies. The name Chrysophyllum panamense has also been used, but never in our data.
Chrysophyllum cainitoAcceptedChrysophyllum cainitochr2caSapotaceaeL.Pennington (1990) is certain this is not native to Panama.
Chrysophyllum panamenseObsoleteChrysophyllum argenteumchr2arSapotaceaeSynonym of Cynodendron panamense that we used briefly in 1980s. This became C. argenteum subsp. panamense in Pennington's monograph (1990), and we used Chr. argenteum in all publications.
Cinnamomum triplinerveAcceptedCinnamomum triplinervephoeciLauraceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Kosterm.This was formerly Phoebe cinnamomifolia, and appeared as such in 1996 and 2004 papers. Croat called in P. mexicanum. See Fl. Nic.
Clidemia dentataAcceptedClidemia dentatacliddeMelastomataceaePav. ex D. DonClidemia is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.
Clidemia octonaAcceptedClidemia octonaclidocMelastomataceae(Bonpl.) L.O. WilliamsClidemia is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.
Clidemia septuplinerviaAcceptedClidemia septuplinerviaclidseMelastomataceaeCogn.Clidemia is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.
Cnemidaria petiolataObsoleteCyathea petiolatacnempeCyatheaceaeGenus Cnemidaria collapsed into much larger Cyathea.
Coccoloba coronataAcceptedCoccoloba coronatacocccoPolygonaceaeJacq.
Coccoloba manzanillensisObsoleteCoccoloba manzinellensiscoccmaPolygonaceaeThis is Croat's misspelling of C. manzinellensis. We propagated the misspelling in the 1996 paper, but corrected it by the 2004 paper.
Coccoloba manzinellensisAcceptedCoccoloba manzinellensiscoccmaPolygonaceaeBeurl.We spelled this incorrectly in 1996, copying Croat's error C. manzanellensis. We propagated the misspelling in the 1996 paper, but corrected it by the 2004 paper.
Cojoba rufescensAcceptedCojoba rufescenspit1ruFabaceae-mimosoideae(Benth.) Britton & RoseFormerly Pithecellobium rufescens, and appears as such in 1996 paper. But Pithecellobium was an enormously broad mix of of many taxa. Barnebey and Grimes (1996) did a detailed phylogeny of Ingeae, many of which (except Inga and Calliandra) were once Pithecellobium. Cojoba is related to Inga and Calliandra according to Barneby and Grimes. The genus revisions do not alter species boundaries here.
Colubrina glandulosaAcceptedColubrina glandulosacoluglRhamnaceaePerkins
Conostegia bracteataAcceptedConostegia bracteataconobrMelastomataceaeTriana
Conostegia cinnamomeaAcceptedConostegia cinnamomeaconociMelastomataceae(Beurl.) Wurdack
Cordia alliodoraAcceptedCordia alliodoracordalCordiaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Oken
Cordia bicolorAcceptedCordia bicolorcordbiCordiaceaeA.DC.
Cordia lasiocalyxAcceptedCordia lasiocalyxcordlaCordiaceaePittier
Coussarea curvigemmiaAcceptedCoussarea curvigemmiacou2cuRubiaceaeDwyer
Coutarea hexandraAcceptedCoutarea hexandracoutheRubiaceae(Jacq.) K.Schum.
Crematosperma garwoodsObsoleteMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeOne name used in some early databases for the new Annonaceae, christened finally as a novel species, Mosannona garwoodii. Croat thought it was a novel Cremastosperma.
Crematosperma sp.ObsoleteMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeCroat mentions this species as rare, citing a Garwood and Foster specimen, and likely new to science, but he misspelled the genus. It turned out to be very common in the 50-ha plot. We published as Malmea sp. nov. in 1996, then the final Mosannona garwoodii in 2004.
Croton billbergianusAcceptedCroton billbergianuscrotbiEuphorbiaceaeMüll.Arg.
Cupania cinereaAcceptedCupania cinereacupaciSapindaceaePoepp.
Cupania latifoliaAcceptedCupania latifoliacupalaSapindaceaeKunth
Cupania rufescensAcceptedCupania rufescenscuparuSapindaceaeTriana & Planch.
Cupania seemanniiAcceptedCupania seemanniicupasySapindaceaeTriana & Planch.Seemann himself named it C. sylvatica in 1853 (Voyage of the Heald), however in 1862 Triana and Planch changed to C. seemanni saying C. sylvatica was already in use for a Brazilian specimen. But Croat used the old C. sylvatica, though he indicated C. seemannii as a synonym.
Cupania sylvaticaObsoleteCupania seemanniicupasySapindaceaeCroat used this name, and we used it in 1996 and 2004 papers. But this was wrong, and C. seemannii has been valid for 150 years.
Cyathea petiolataAcceptedCyathea petiolatacnempeCyatheaceae(Hook.) R.M. TryonDNA phylogenies of tree ferns rearranged much traditional taxonomy. Cnemidaria is nested within Cyathea. No change species boundary.
Cynodendron panamenseObsoleteChrysophyllum argenteumchr2arSapotaceae(Pittier) Aubrév.Croat's name, but we had switched to Chrysophyllum panamense by start of 50-ha plot. Yet another taxonomic revision followed, and this appears as Chrysophyllum argenteum in 1996 and 2004 papers. Pennington (1990) placed Cynodendron within Chrysophyllum. Older treatments of Sapotaceae have gone back and forth on this, indeed, Croat lists Chrysophyllum panamense as a synonym. Morever, Pennington moved C. panamense under the widely distributed Chrysophyllum argenteum.
Cyphomandra hartwegiiObsoleteSolanum circinatumcyphhaSolanaceaeCroat’s name, we used it through the 1996 paper. Now known as Solanum circinatum. Bohs (1995) collapsed entire genus Cyphomandra into Solanum with no changes in species boundaries.
Damburneya umbrosaAcceptedDamburneya umbrosanectpuLauraceae(Kunth) TrofimovOne group of Nectandra now split into this genus, an old name that had been subsumed into Nectandra, now resurrected on molecular results. This was originally Nectandra purpurea, reidentified as N. umbrosa, but the latter never go into the database (for BCI specimens, but yes for one at Sherman) or any publication.
Dendropanax arboreusAcceptedDendropanax arboreusdendarAraliaceae(L.) Decne. & Planch.What we currently call all Dendropanax in the 50-ha plot, but variation may require 4 species. Some D. arboreus at BCI now recognized as D. caucanus by Cannon, or D. concinnus by N. Hensold (the latter not valid according to Tropicos). See Cannon and Cannon (1989) about variability of widespread D. arboreus, and Hensold suggests hybridization or introgression might be blurring boundaries. The group requires revision, and individuals within the plot may need to be divided. Garwood supports a division of Croat's D. arboreus into D. caucanus and D. arboreus. See also notes with D. stenodontus about yet another possible taxon.
Dendropanax stenodontusObsoleteDendropanax arboreusdendstAraliaceaeCroat's key indicates differences between this and D. arboreus (adult size, leaf dentition), and Foster originally separated many individuals under this name. In 1996 paper, both D. stenodontus and D. arboreus appear. After that, we lumped all under D. arboreus. Cannon and Cannon are inconclusive about whether there might be a small-stature species, but D. stenodontus would not be the correct name. Possibly D. maritimus.
Desmopsis panamensisAcceptedDesmopsis panamensisdes2paAnnonaceae(B.L.Rob.) Saff.
Didymopanax morototoniObsoleteSchefflera morototonisch2moAraliaceaeThe name in Croat, and we used this at the very beginning of the 50-ha censuses. Now Schefflera morotoni, and we had made the change by the late 1980s. The entire genus Didymopanax was collapsed into Schefflera (Frodin 1975), which is interestingly prior to the date of Croat's book.
Diospyros artanthifoliaAcceptedDiospyros artanthifoliadio2arEbenaceaeMart. ex Miq.
Dipteryx oleiferaAcceptedDipteryx oleiferadiptpaFabaceae-papilionoideaeBenth.Formerly D. panamensis. The two names appear to be used interchangeably for a species collected from Nicaragua through the Colombian choco, plus one in Ecuador. At Tropicos, de Lima named BCI specimens D. oleifera in 1986, but Klitgaard renamed D. panamensis in 2007. D. oleifera is the early name, but without specimens. The rules committee voted to accept it (Brummitt 2011).
Dipteryx panamensisObsoleteDipteryx oleiferadiptpaFabaceae-papilionoideaeCroat's name, and we used it in 1996 paper. We have now switched to D. oleifera, though Fl Meso online is back to D. panamensis. Zamora (2010) uses D. panamensis but adds that D. oleifera might be correct.
Drypetes standleyiAcceptedDrypetes standleyidrypstPutranjivaceaeG.L.Webster
Elaeis oleiferaAcceptedElaeis oleiferaelaeolArecaceae(Kunth) Cortés
Enterolobium schomburgkiiAcceptedEnterolobium schomburgkiientescFabaceae-mimosoideae(Benth.) Benth.
Erythrina costaricensisAcceptedErythrina costaricensisery1coFabaceae-papilionoideaeMicheli
Erythroxylum macrophyllumAcceptedErythroxylum macrophyllumery2maErythroxylaceaeCav.Formerly E. multiflorum, a name from Canal Area in 1940. Plowman synonomized it and other local names under the widespread and variable E. macrophyllum. See also Hammel et al (2010) treating E. multiflorum under this. Appendix of 1996 paper failed to list E. multiflorum as Croat’s name for this taxa.
Erythroxylum multiflorumObsoleteErythroxylum macrophyllumery2maErythroxylaceaeCroat’s name, but we had switched to E. macrophyllum in 1996 and 2004 papers, following Plowman1991. But Plowman acknowledges that E. multiflorum is distinctive, close to E. macrophyllum skutchii in Costa Rica and two other large-leaved subspecies of E. macrophyllum in S. America.
Erythroxylum panamenseAcceptedErythroxylum panamenseery2paErythroxylaceaeTurcz.
Eugenia coloradensisObsoleteEugenia coloradoensiseugecoMyrtaceaeCroat's misspelling of E. coloradoensis. We repeated in 1996 paper but corrected in 2004.
Eugenia coloradoensisAcceptedEugenia coloradoensiseugecoMyrtaceaeStandl.
Eugenia galalonensisAcceptedEugenia galalonensiseugegaMyrtaceae(C.Wright ex Griseb.) Krug & Urb.
Eugenia nesioticaAcceptedEugenia nesioticaeugeneMyrtaceaeStandl.
Eugenia oerstedeanaObsoleteEugenia oerstedianaeugeoeMyrtaceaeCroat’s misspelling of E. oerstediana, which we repeated in the 1996 paper.
Eugenia oerstedianaAcceptedEugenia oerstedianaeugeoeMyrtaceaeO.BergThis was listed under Croat’s misspelling, E. oerstedeana, in the 1996 paper.
Faramea occidentalisAcceptedFaramea occidentalisfaraocRubiaceae(L.) A.Rich.
Ficus aureaObsoleteFicus trigonataficutrMoraceaeNutt.We used F. trigonata at least until 1996 paper, but F. aurea replaced it. This is a mistake; it's the Florida species and is not known on BCI (but is in western Panama).
Ficus bulleneiObsoleteFicus matizianaficubuMoraceaeI.M.Johnst.Croat’s name, and we used it 1996 and 2004 papers. Berg (2009) synonomized with F. matiziana, a S. American species. Garwood (2009) continued with F. bullenei.
Ficus citrifoliaAcceptedFicus citrifoliaficuciMoraceaeMill.
Ficus colubrinaeAcceptedFicus colubrinaeficuc1MoraceaeStandl.
Ficus costaricanaAcceptedFicus costaricanaficuc2Moraceae(Liebm.) Miq.
Ficus insipidaAcceptedFicus insipidaficuinMoraceaeWilld.
Ficus matizianaAcceptedFicus matizianaficubuMoraceaeDugandFormerly F. bullenei, following Croat, and appearing under that name in 1996 and 2004 papers. Garwood (2009) retained F. bullenei.
Ficus maximaAcceptedFicus maximaficumaMoraceaeMill.
Ficus obtusifoliaAcceptedFicus obtusifoliaficuobMoraceaeKunth
Ficus pertusaAcceptedFicus pertusaficupeMoraceaeL.f.
Ficus popenoeiAcceptedFicus popenoeificupoMoraceaeStandl.
Ficus tonduziiAcceptedFicus tonduziificutoMoraceaeStandl.
Ficus trigonataAcceptedFicus trigonataficutrMoraceaeL.Croat’s name and ours originally for the 50-ha plot, appearing in 1996 paper (though mispelled as F. trigonta). We then mistakely listed as F. aurea for several years. Garwood uses trigonata, but indicates a complex of distinct types. However, now Berg says Panama specimens should be F. crocata and that F. trigonata is restricted to the Antilles; he describes variation in detail.
Ficus trigontaObsoleteFicus trigonataficutrMoraceaeA publishing typo for F. trigonata in our 1996 paper.
Ficus yoponensisAcceptedFicus yoponensisficuyoMoraceaeDesv.
Garcinia intermediaObsoleteGarcinia reconditagar2inClusiaceae(Pittier) HammelCroat used the old name Rheedia edulis. Became Garcinia intermedia after Hammel (1989), who summarized various studies showing that Rheedia cannot be separated from Garcinia. As of 2015, however, G. intermedia at BCI was moved to G. recondita (see notes there).
Garcinia madrunoAcceptedGarcinia madrunogar2maClusiaceae(Kunth) HammelFormerly R. acuminata. See notes for G. intermedia and Hammel (1989). We had switched before 1996, so this is in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Garcinia reconditaAcceptedGarcinia reconditagar2inClusiaceaeHammelHammel described this species around 2015, though still not published (Hammel pers. comm.). All BCI specimens of R. edulis/G. intermedia now identified at Tropicos as G. recondita, but G. intermedia remains valid elsewhere in Panama.
Genipa americanaAcceptedGenipa americanageniamRubiaceaeL.
Geonoma interruptaAcceptedGeonoma interruptageoninArecaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.
Guapira standleyanaAcceptedGuapira standleyanaguapstNyctaginaceaeWoodsonWe misspelled this G. standleyanum in the 1996 paper, copying the error from Croat.
Guapira standleyanumObsoleteGuapira standleyanaguapstNyctaginaceaeWe used this misspelling from Croat for many years, and the name is spelled wrong in the 1996 paper. It should be G. standleyana.
Guarea bullataAcceptedGuarea bullataguarspMeliaceaeRadlk.We finally identified the fuzzy-leaved Guarea morphospecies as this after 2004. G. bullata has been known in other parts of Panama since at least the 1960s. Impressed venation is distinctive, otherwise very similar and closely related to G. glabra.
Guarea fuzzyObsoleteGuarea bullataguarspMeliaceaeOur temporary name for a Guarea with pubescent leaves in the 50 ha plot, by far the most abundant of unnamed morphospecies in the initial census. It is not at all like the two other Guarea on BCI. Finally identified as G. bullata,
Guarea grandifoliaAcceptedGuarea grandifoliaguargrMeliaceae(L.) SleumerBCI specimens of G. multiflora were renamed this before plot started (Pennington in 1979 on Mobot sheets, eg Croat 8443, 11300).
Guarea guidoniaAcceptedGuarea guidoniaguarguMeliaceae(L.) SleumerIdentified as G. glabra in Croat. Foster reidentified by 1981; G. glabra should have glabrous ovary and few lenticels, small flowers relative to G. guidonia.
Guarea multifloraObsoleteGuarea grandifoliaguargrMeliaceaeAdr. Juss.Croat's name for the large-leaved Guarea we call G. grandifolia in the 50-ha plot. We never used G. multiflora because Pennington re-identified Croat's BCI specimens in 1979. G. multiflora was named in Juisseau (1830) without any specimen or location; one of two Mobot specimens is a liana!. It does not appear in Pennington (2013), even the appendix.
Guarea sp. 1ObsoleteGuarea bullataguarspMeliaceaeAlternate name for G. fuzzy, later identified as G. bullata, used in Condit et al. (2004). Unfortunate, because Guarea sp.1 was applied to a species in plot 33 in 1996 and is still in use.
Guarea sp. nov.ObsoleteGuarea bullataguarspMeliaceaeAlternate name for G. fuzzy, later identified as G. bullata, used in Condit et al. (1996). This mistakenly suggests we thought it would be a newly named species, but it turned out not to be.
Guatteria dumetorumObsoleteGuatteria lucensguatduAnnonaceaeR.E.Fr.Croat's name, and we followed for 30 years, appearing in 1996 and 2004 papers.. Maas (2015) decided to lump with G. lucens.
Guatteria lucensAcceptedGuatteria lucensguatduAnnonaceaeStandl.We knew this as G. dumetorum for 30 years, and see notes there. Maas (2015) provides details about slight leaf differences between the dumetorum type and lucens type, but indicates that in all other ways the two are indistringuishable. Both types also have the same range, in Costa Rica and Panama, so though the species circumscription was widened by lumping, the range was not.
Guazuma ulmifoliaAcceptedGuazuma ulmifoliaguazulMalvaceaeLam.
Guettarda foliaceaAcceptedGuettarda foliaceaguetfoRubiaceaeStandl.
Gustavia superbaAcceptedGustavia superbagustsuLecythidaceae(Kunth) O.Berg
Hamelia axillarisAcceptedHamelia axillarishameaxRubiaceaeSw.
Hamelia patensAcceptedHamelia patenshamepaRubiaceaeJacq.
Hampea appendiculataAcceptedHampea appendiculatahampapMalvaceae(Donn.Sm.) Standl.
Handroanthus guayacanAcceptedHandroanthus guayacantab1guBignoniaceae(Seem.) S.O.GroseFormerly Tabebuia guayacan, and appeared as that name in 1996 and 2004 papers. Handroanthus is an old name, and morphological distinctions were known since the 19th century.
Hasseltia floribundaAcceptedHasseltia floribundahassflSalicaceaeKunth
Heisteria acuminataAcceptedHeisteria acuminataheisacErythropalaceae(Humb. & Bonpl.) Engl.Known as H. longipes in Croat, but we used this name from the very start, and it appears in both 1996 and 2004 paper use this. Sleumer explains that Heisteria are not identifiable based only on flowers or fruits and leaves are needed. He collapsed many local species under H. acuminata, and all Tropicos specimens formerly called H. longipes now identified as H. acuminata by S. Knapp, R. Liesner, H. Sleumer.
Heisteria concinnaAcceptedHeisteria concinnaheiscoErythropalaceaeStandl.
Heisteria longipesObsoleteHeisteria acuminataheisacErythropalaceaeStandl.Croat's name, following Standley for Panama specimens. He describes range as Colombia-Costa Rica. Sleumer monograph lumps under H. acuminata after viewing many BCI specimens. We never used this name.
Herrania purpureaAcceptedHerrania purpureaherrpuMalvaceae(Pittier) R.E. Schult.
Hieronyma alchorneoidesAcceptedHieronyma alchorneoideshyeralEuphorbiaceaeAllemãoFranco reidentified BCI specimens in 1989 and published a major revision, collapsing H. laxiflora and other widespread varieties. Major broadening of range, however many local names are still listed as valid at Tropicos. Franco recognizes two varieties of H. alchorneoides, both among Croat's BCI specimens, but this is stipule difference between adults and juveniles (Hensold).
Hirtella americanaAcceptedHirtella americanahirtamChrysobalanaceaeL.
Hirtella triandraAcceptedHirtella triandrahirttrChrysobalanaceaeSw.
Hura crepitansAcceptedHura crepitanshuracrEuphorbiaceaeL.
Hybanthus prunifoliusObsoletePombalia prunifoliahybaprViolaceae(Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.) Schulze-MenzCroat's name, and we used for 35 years and published in 1996 and 2004. de Paula Souza and Ballard (2014) revised Hybanthus based on polyphyly shown by DNA phylogeny. Several new genera will be needed.
Hyeronima alcheornoidesObsoleteHieronyma alchorneoideshyeralEuphorbiaceaeThis is an unfortunate typo in the 1996 paper. The species name should be alchorneoides. Separately, the genus should be Hieronyma, but this error follows Croat. See notes with Hyeronima laxiflora.
Hyeronima laxifloraObsoleteHieronyma alchorneoideshyeralEuphorbiaceaeCroat's name, note misspelling of genus (an old problem due to two spellings in original description). We originally used this name in 50-ha plot. Franco1990 synonomized under H. alchorneoides.
Inga acuminataAcceptedInga acuminataingas1Fabaceae-mimosoideaeBenth.Originally censused as Inga skinny, an unidentified morphospecies. Croat did not include this species, and we finally got it identified in 1989 (Zamora). It was not (??) known in Panama until then. We had it as I. acuminata in the 1996 paper.
Inga cocleensisAcceptedInga cocleensisingacoFabaceae-mimosoideaePittierThe identification of this species in the 50-ha plot has been reassessed. See detailed notes under I. thibaudiana and I. unidentified.
Inga fagifoliaObsoleteInga laurinaingafaFabaceae-mimosoideaeWe followed Croat and used this name at the outset, and it appears in the 1996 paper. Now synonomized with I. laurina, following Pennington's (1997) revision of the entire genus, and I. laurina appears in the 2004 paper. Tropicos specimens from BCI identified as I. laurina by Sousan in 1990 or Pennington in 1996.
Inga goldmaniiAcceptedInga goldmaniiingagoFabaceae-mimosoideaePittier
Inga laurinaAcceptedInga laurinaingafaFabaceae-mimosoideae(Sw.) Willd.Originally I. fagifolia, following Croat, but I. laurina was synonomized with I. fagifolia in Pennington's (1997) revision of the entire genus. We used I. fagifolia in the 1996 paper but I. laurina in the 2004 paper.
Inga marginataAcceptedInga marginataingamaFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.
Inga minutulaObsoleteInga oerstedianaingamiFabaceae-mimosoideaeWe followed Croat and used this name at the outset, and it appears in the 1996 paper. Now synonomized with I. oerstediana in Pennington's (1997). Tropicos specimens from BCI identified as I. oerstediana by Sousan in 1990.
Inga mucunaAcceptedInga mucunaingam1Fabaceae-mimosoideaeWalp. & Duchass.
Inga nobilisAcceptedInga nobilisingaquFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.Originally I. quaternata, following Croat, but we now follow Pennington (1997), in which I. quaternata was synonomized with I. nobilis. In 2004 paper, we had changed to this. C. American specimens are subsp. quaternata, and S. American are subsp. nobilis, but Pennington explains that there are intermediates in between and sometime one plant mixes the two different flower forms. We used I. quaternata in the 1996 paper but I. nobilis in the 2004 paper. See notes on recent confusion under I. quaternata.
Inga oerstedianaAcceptedInga oerstedianaingamiFabaceae-mimosoideaeBenth.Originally I. minutula, following Croat, and appeared as such in the 1996 paper. Pennington's (1997) synonomized I. minutula under I. oerstediana, and Tropicos BCI specimens were identified as I. oerstediana in 1990 (Sousa). I. oerstediana is closely related to and possibly conspecific with I. edulis.
Inga pavonianaObsoleteInga sapindoidesingasaFabaceae-mimosoideaeA name appearing at Tropicos now, along with I. marginata.. It is accepted by Sousa (1993), and C. Romero applies at Tropicos. But N. Hensold points out I. marginata has priority, and Pennington and Man CR both use the latter.
Inga peziziferaAcceptedInga peziziferaingapeFabaceae-mimosoideaeBenth.
Inga punctataAcceptedInga punctataingapuFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.
Inga quaternataObsoleteInga nobilisingaquFabaceae-mimosoideaeWe followed Croat and used this in 1996 paper. I. quaternata was synonomized with I. nobilis in Pennington's (1997) revision of the entire genus, and use I. nobilis in 2004 paper. Confusion remains, though, with the name I. quaternata still appearing: Tropicos specimens from BCI identified as I. quaternata by C. Romero in 2006. Note confusion also in Zamora (2010), mentioning both names I. nobilis subsp. quaternata and I. quaternata as if they are distinct taxa.
Inga ruizianaAcceptedInga ruizianaingaruFabaceae-mimosoideaeG.Don
Inga sapindoidesAcceptedInga sapindoidesingasaFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.Sousa (1993) argues that I. pavoniana should be used, because original specimen of I. sapindoides lacked flowers and is questionable. Tropicos specimens IDed by C. Romero in 2006 as I. pavoniana (also R. Gereult in 1994). Pennington synonomizes the latter under I. sapindoides and has no discussion of the problem.
Inga semialataObsoleteInga marginataingamaFabaceae-mimosoideaeA name in use at Tropicos because Sousa uses it, but Pennington and Man CR use I. marginata. N. Henshold says I. marginata has precedence.
Inga skinnyObsoleteInga acuminataingas1Fabaceae-mimosoideaeAn Inga with narrow leaflets not identified in the first census. In 1989, identified as I. acuminata.
Inga spectabilisAcceptedInga spectabilisingaspFabaceae-mimosoideae(Vahl) Willd.
Inga thibaudianaAcceptedInga thibaudianaingathFabaceae-mimosoideaeDC.Included in Croat, but not recognized in the 50-ha plot until 2005, when it was separated from I. coclensis for the first time. Many trees previously known as I. coclensis had been alive since 1982, so we know that I. thibaudiana has always been part of the 50-ha plot.
Inga umbelliferaAcceptedInga umbelliferaingaumFabaceae-mimosoideae(Vahl) Steud.
Inga unidentifiedAcceptedInga unidentifiedingaunFabaceae-mimosoideaeThe Inga species I. coclensis and I. thibaudiana were reassessed in 2005, and many individuals of I. coclensis were reidentified as I. thibaudiana. Any tree known as I. coclensis that had died by 2005 could not be revisited, and all those had to be switched to I. unidentified.
Jacaranda copaiaAcceptedJacaranda copaiajac1coBignoniaceae(Aubl.) D.Don
Jacaratia spinosaAcceptedJacaratia spinosajac2spCaricaceae(Aubl.) A.DC.Croat included this taxon, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until the 2015 census.
Koanophyllon wetmoreiAcceptedKoanophyllon wetmoreikoanweAsteraceae(B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.
Lacistema aggregatumAcceptedLacistema aggregatumlaciagLacistemataceae(P.J.Bergius) Rusby
Lacmellea panamensisAcceptedLacmellea panamensislacmpaApocynaceae(Woodson) Markgr.
Laetia proceraAcceptedLaetia proceralaetprSalicaceae(Poepp.) Eichler
Laetia thamniaAcceptedLaetia thamnialaetthSalicaceaeL.
Lafoensia punicifoliaAcceptedLafoensia punicifolialafopuLythraceaeDC.
Leandra dichotomaAcceptedLeandra dichotomaleandiMelastomataceae(Pav. ex D. Don) Cogn.Leandra is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.
Licania hypoleucaAcceptedLicania hypoleucalicahyChrysobalanaceaeBenth.
Licania platypusAcceptedLicania platypuslicaplChrysobalanaceae(Hemsl.) Fritsch
Lindackeria laurinaAcceptedLindackeria laurinalindlaAchariaceaeC. Presl
Lonchocarpus heptaphyllusAcceptedLonchocarpus heptaphylluslonclaFabaceae-papilionoideae(Poir.) DC.The species appears as L. latifolia in the 1996 paper then L. latifolius in the 2004 paper (the latter is correct). Croat knew this as L. pentaphyllus. Zamora2010a synonomized L. latifolius under this.
Lonchocarpus latifoliaObsoleteLonchocarpus heptaphylluslonclaFabaceae-papilionoideaeAn incorrect spelling for L. latifolius that we used in the 1996 paper. But that name is now obsolete, and this goes by L. heptaphyllus.
Lonchocarpus latifoliusObsoleteLonchocarpus heptaphylluslonclaFabaceae-papilionoideaeThis was our first name for the Lonchocarpus species in the 50-ha plot. Croat knew it as L. pentaphyllus. Zamora (2010) synonomized L. latifolius and L. pentaphyllus under L. heptaphyllus.
Lonchocarpus pentaphyllusObsoleteLonchocarpus heptaphylluslonclaFabaceae-papilionoideae(Poir.) DC.Croat’s name, now considered a synonym of L. heptaphyllus (Zamora 2010).
Lopimia dasypetalaObsoletePavonia dasypetalalopidaMalvaceaeThis was Croat's name, and we used in both 1996 and 2004 papers. Now considered Pavonia dasypetala. Lopimia was described in 1823, but frequently treated under Pavonia since the 19th century. Differs in mucilage on fruits. No Pavonia DNA phylogeny is available.
Lozania pittieriAcceptedLozania pittierilozapiLacistemataceae(S.F.Blake) L.B.Sm.
Luehea seemanniiAcceptedLuehea seemanniiluehseMalvaceaeTriana & Planch.
Lycianthes maxoniiAcceptedLycianthes maxoniilycimaSolanaceaeStandl.
Maclura tinctoriaAcceptedMaclura tinctoriamacltiMoraceae(L.) D.Don ex Steud.This was listed as Chlorophora tinctoria in the 2004 paper, but M. tinctoria in the 1996 paper. Neither name appears in Croat, and D'Arcy used Chlorophora. Our brief use of Chorophora was erroneous, since Berg's (2001) monograph clearly used Maclura.
Macrocnemum glabrescensObsoleteMacrocnemum roseummacrglRubiaceaeCroat's name and our original name, appearing in 1996 paper. Changed to M. roseum after 2000.
Macrocnemum roseumAcceptedMacrocnemum roseummacrglRubiaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.Formerly M. glabrescens, but that C. American form was lumped under this widespread S. American species (Taylor pers. comm.). Appears as M. glabrescens in 1996 paper. [I need Lorence 1999 on C. American Rubiaceae.]
Malmea garwood'sObsoleteMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeOne name used in some early databases for the new Annonaceae, christened finally as a novel species, Mosannona garwoodii.
Malmea Nancy??ObsoleteMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeOne name used in some early databases for the new Annonaceae, christened finally as a novel species, Mosannona garwoodii. For a period in the early censuses, we thought it might be a novel Malmea.
Malmea sp. nov.ObsoleteMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeThis was the name we used in the 1996 paper for the novel Annonaceae, later described as Mosannona garwoodii.
Malpighia romeroanaAcceptedMalpighia romeroanamalproMalpighiaceaeCuatrec.
Maquira costaricanaObsoleteMaquira guianensismaqucoMoraceaeWe took this name from Croat and used through the 1996 paper, but switched to M. guianensis for 2004 paper, following Berg (1972). With more specimens of M. guianensis from Ecuador, Berg could no longer separate M. costaricensus (Ecuador and north) and M. guianensis (across S. America). Now, Berg (2001) considers the former a subspecies of the latter.
Maquira guianensisAcceptedMaquira guianensismaqucoMoraceaeAubl.Formerly M. costaricana. We switched after Berg (2001), and the 2004 paper used M. guianensis. See notes with M. costaricana.
Margaritaria nobilisAcceptedMargaritaria nobilismargnoPhyllanthaceaeL.f.Croat includes this taxon on BCI, but we did not identify in the 50-ha plot until 1990. A few individuals were in the census from the start, but remained unidentified until then.
Marila laxifloraAcceptedMarila laxifloramar1laClusiaceaeRusby
Maytenus schippiiAcceptedMaytenus schippiimaytscCelastraceaeLundell
Miconia affinisAcceptedMiconia affinismicoafMelastomataceaeDC.
Miconia argenteaAcceptedMiconia argenteamicoarMelastomataceae(Sw.) DC.
Miconia dorsilobaAcceptedMiconia dorsilobamicodoMelastomataceaeGleasonOriginally called morphospecies Miconia sp.15 2000, identified as M. dorsiloba in 2005. Does not appear in Croat.
Miconia elataAcceptedMiconia elatamicoelMelastomataceae(Sw.) DC.
Miconia hondurensisAcceptedMiconia hondurensismicohoMelastomataceaeDonn. Sm.
Miconia impetiolarisAcceptedMiconia impetiolarismicoimMelastomataceae(Sw.) D. Don ex DC.
Miconia nervosaAcceptedMiconia nervosamiconeMelastomataceae(Sm.) Triana
Miconia prasinaAcceptedMiconia prasinamicoprMelastomataceae(Sw.) DC.
Miconia sp.15ObsoleteMiconia dorsilobamico15MelastomataceaeA Miconia new to the 50-ha plot recruited in 2000. It remained until 2005, when another recruited. It was then identified as M. dorsiloba.
Morinda seibertiiObsoleteAppunia seibertiiappuseRubiaceae(Standl.) Steyerm.We originally used Appunia seibertii, but then followed Steyermark (1972) in moving Appunia within the broad Morinda. But recent DNA phylogeny reinstated Appunia. See more notes there.
Mosannona garwoodiiAcceptedMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeChatrou & WelzenisThe official species name, maintaining Nancy Garwood's, described by Chatrou (1998). This correct version appeared in our 2004 paper. The species was thus first described from the BCI 50-ha plot. It is very distinctive, and common in the plot. It had several morphospecies names before the final description, including the genera Malmea and Cremastosperma. Croat called in Crematosperma sp., misspelling the genus.
Mosannona garwoodsObsoleteMosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeOne briefly used name for the new Annonaceae, after P. Maas saw it and placed it in a new Neotropical genus. Chatrou (1998) eventually christened it as a novel species, Mosannona garwoodii.
Mouriri myrtilloidesAcceptedMouriri myrtilloidesmourmyMelastomataceae(Sw.) Poir.
Myrcia gatunensisObsoleteMyrcia splendens tip. gatunensismyrcgaMyrtaceaeStandl.The name from Croat, and we used in 1996 paper and onward until 2017. Tropicos, citing Flora Mesoamerica and Flora Costa Rica, merges into M. splendens, a very widespread neotropical species. FMNH specimens also use M. splendens, det by Kawasaki 2005. But we have M. splendens separate (formerly myrc3), including many individuals of M. gatunensis and M. splendens together in plot 6. Kawasaki (pers. comm.) acknowledges that M. splendens is variable and needs revision. For now, we maintain M. gatunensis.
Myrcia splendens tip. gatunensisAcceptedMyrcia splendens tip. gatunensismyrcgaMyrtaceae(Sw.) DC.See sp.3, the morphospecies eventually identified as this. See also M. gatunensis, whose BCI specimens are now identified as M. splendens. However, plot 6 has many individuals of both this species and M. gatunensis growing side by side.
Myrospermum frutescensAcceptedMyrospermum frutescensmyrofrFabaceae-papilionoideaeJacq.Not in Croat but we identified in 1982 census.
Nectandra cissifloraAcceptedNectandra cissifloranectciLauraceaeNees
Nectandra fuzzyAcceptedNectandra fuzzynects1LauraceaeAn unidentified Lauraceae, tentatively placed in genus Nectandra. We have most consistently called it Nectandra fuzzy, but it was listed as Nectandra sp. nov. 1 in the 1996 paper, though we are not certain it's a novel species. The 50-ha plot has 11 individuals assigned the name.
Nectandra globosaObsoleteNectandra lineatanectglLauraceaeThis is Croat's name, and we originally used it. But Croat's BCI specimens are now identified as N. lineata (Rohwer 1993). N. globosa is valid but only occurs in Guyana. We used N. globosa in the 1996 paper, but the corrected N. lineata in the 2004 paper.
Nectandra lineataAcceptedNectandra lineatanectglLauraceae(Kunth) RohwerOur current identification for this Nectandra, following Rohwer (1993) who explains the source of Croat's mistaken identifcation as N. globosa.
Nectandra purpurascensObsoleteDamburneya umbrosanectpuLauraceae(Ruiz & Pav.) MezCroat used this name, but it is an error. Authority given by Croat matches that of N. purpurea, so Rowher assumed that's what Croat meant.
Nectandra purpureaObsoleteDamburneya umbrosanectpuLauraceae(Ruiz & Pav.) MezWe used this in 1996 and 2004 papers, following but correcting Croat's name (he mispelled it as N. purpurascens). But Rohwer (1993) identified BCI specimens as N. umbrosa (N. purpurea is valid, and similar, but not on BCI). As of 2016, though, this section of Nectandra was moved into genus Damburneya, so now we call it D. umbrosa. Note, however, that van der Werff in 2016 IDed Croat 5053 from BCI as D. purpurea at same time as he named all other BCI specimens as D. umbrosa.
Nectandra savannarumObsoleteDamburneya umbrosanectpuLauraceae(Standl. & Steyerm.) C.K. AllenWe never used this in 50-ha plot data. Croat used it for a single specimen from BCI (Foster 960 at Tropicos), matching it to a species described in Guatemalan savanna (Allen 1945). That one specimen was later determined (on Tropicos specimen) to be the same as the other common Nectandra (now Damburneya umbrosa, what Croat called N. purpurascens).
Nectandra sp._4ObsoleteNectandra sp.4_(tiny_leaf)nects3Lauraceae
Nectandra sp.4_(tiny_leaf)AcceptedNectandra sp.4_(tiny_leaf)nects3LauraceaeThis extremely rare Lauraceae, with just one individual in the 1982 census of the 50-ha plot, was never identified, and we are not certain it is a Nectandra. The single individual died after 1985 and we have never seen it elsewhere, so it will probably never be identified. It had very small leaves, hence the morphospecies name, but it was listed as Nectandra sp. nov. 3 in the 1996 paper. The combination of sp. 4 and sp. 3 as parts of the name for the same morphospecies resulted from confusion caused by several other unidentified Nectandra in our Panama database.
Nectandra sp.nov.1ObsoleteNectandra fuzzynects1LauraceaeThis is an alternative name for the unidentified morphospecies we call Nectandra fuzzy. It was coined for the 1996 paper to sound more professional than N. fuzzy.
Nectandra sp.nov.3ObsoleteNectandra sp.4_(tiny_leaf)nects3LauraceaeThis is an alternative name for the unidentified morphospecies we refer to as Nectandra sp.4_(tiny_leaf) in all databases. It was coined for the 1996 paper. The combination of sp. 4 and sp. 3 as parts of the name for the same morphospecies resulted from confusion caused by several other unidentified Nectandra in our Panama database.
Nectandra umbrosaObsoleteDamburneya umbrosanectumLauraceae(Kunth) MezRolando used this name in Santa Rita transect, but he says it is same as BCI specimens with code NECTPU. So all taxa we once called N. purpurea are now Damburneya umbrosa, maintaining code NECTPU. At BCI we never used N. umbrosa, because by the time we discovered Rowher's reidentification of N. purpurea, it had been transferred to the genus Damburneya.
Neea amplifoliaAcceptedNeea amplifolianeeaamNyctaginaceaeDonn.Sm.
Ochroma pyramidaleAcceptedOchroma pyramidaleochrpyMalvaceae(Cav. ex Lam.) Urb.
Ocotea cernuaAcceptedOcotea cernuaocotceLauraceae(Nees) Mez
Ocotea oblongaAcceptedOcotea oblongaocotobLauraceae(Meisn.) Mez
Ocotea puberulaAcceptedOcotea puberulaocotpuLauraceae(Rich.) NeesCroat called this O. pyramidata, but we changed to O. puberula by the late 1980s. Van der Weff had already named BCI specimens O. puberula in 1983. See Van der Werff (2002).
Ocotea pyrimidataObsoleteOcotea puberulaocotpuLauraceaeCroat's named, and we used at the start of the 50-ha plot. We had switched to O. puberula before 1990, and both 1996 and 2004 papers list it as O. puberula. See notes with O. puberula.
Ocotea skutchiiObsoleteOcotea whiteiocotwhLauraceaeCroat used this name, and we followed Croat at the very beginning. By the late 1980s, we switched to O. whitei, and both 1996 and 2004 paper used O. whitei. Van der Werff (2002) published the synonomy.
Ocotea whiteiAcceptedOcotea whiteiocotwhLauraceaeWoodsonCroat used O. skutchii, but that name was synonomized soon after his book. See van der Werff (2002), who acknowledged variability of O. whitei.
Oenocarpus maporaAcceptedOenocarpus maporaoenomaArecaceaeH.Karst.Formerly O. panamanus, in Croat and in the first census.
Oenocarpus mapouraObsoleteOenocarpus maporaoenomaArecaceaeThis is a misspelling of O. mapora that appeared in our 1996 paper. We spelled it correctly in 2004 paper.
Oenocarpus panamanusObsoleteOenocarpus maporaoenomaArecaceaeCroat's name, a name used only in Costa Rica and Panama. We used it at the start of the 50-ha plot but had switched to O. mapora by the late 1980s. Henderson1997 officially lumped this with the widespread O. mapora, along with several other local names in the genus.
Olmedia asperaObsoleteTrophis caucanaolmeasMoraceaeOur early name, from Croat, now Trophis caucana. Berg (1972) in early Moraceae monograph separated this as a monotypic genus from its earlier inclusion in Trophis. In Berg (1988, 2001), he reversed, saying that Trophis morphology had expanded with T. involucrata, and the wider variation accommodates Olmedia.
Oreopanax capitatusAcceptedOreopanax capitatusoreocaAraliaceae(Jacq.) Decne. & Planch.Croat includes this, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until 2010. The sole individual then died by 2015.
Ormosia amazonicaAcceptedOrmosia amazonicaormoamFabaceae-papilionoideaeDuckeNot in Croat but identified in 1982 census.
Ormosia coccineaAcceptedOrmosia coccineaormocrFabaceae-papilionoideae(Aubl.) Jacks.Current identification for a moderately common tree in the plot. Croat listed this form as O. croatii, an unofficial name, but it has been identified at Tropicos in 1978 (MO Dillon). N. Zamora confirmed in 2007 (pers. Comm. To N. Hensold).
Ormosia croatiiObsoleteOrmosia coccineaormocrFabaceae-papilionoideaeCroat used this name, but it is not a published name. Later, MO Dillon and N. Zamora identified this as O. coccinea.
Ormosia macrocalyxAcceptedOrmosia macrocalyxormomaFabaceae-papilionoideaeDucke
Ouratea lucensAcceptedOuratea lucensouraluOchnaceae(Kunth) Engl.
Pachira quinataObsoletePochota quinatapochquMalvaceae(Jacq.) W.S.AlversonCroat used Bombacopsis quinata, but by 1996 paper we had updated to Pochota quinata, then we changed to Pachira quinata by 2004 paper. But now we have to go back to Pochota quinata, following a recent DNA phylogeny. This makes the nomenclatural history of this taxon the most confusing of all in our database. The genera Bombacopsis, Pochota, and Pachira have been variously used due to taxonomic disagreement. They were coined in 1916, 1909, and 1775 respectively, and there has been a decades long argument about whether Bombacopsis and Pochota refer to the same plants and which takes precedence. At BCI, we originally followed Croat and used Bombacopsis, but Stevens (1987) argued in favor of Pochota as the earlier name. Subsequently, Alverson (1994) argued that they should all fall within Pachira, because none of the characters used to separate Pochota from Pachira were consistent; he acknowledged they may be separate but more evidence was needed. Sure enough, a DNA phylogeny from 2011 does not support Pachira, unless Eriotheca and Bombax are subsumed, and the genus Pochota was again resurrected for P. quinata (but not P. sessilis, which belongs in Pachira).
Pachira sessilisAcceptedPachira sessilispochseMalvaceaeBenth.Bombacopsis sessilis according to Croat. In 1996 paper, it appeared as Pochota sessilis, but we updated to Pachira sessilis for 2004 paper. See genus discussion under P. quinata
Palicourea acuminataAcceptedPalicourea acuminatapsycacRubiaceae(Benth.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria acumintata. Several psychotria moved to Palicourea due to improved character understanding (see Psych. acuminata).
Palicourea brachiataAcceptedPalicourea brachiatapsycb1Rubiaceae(Sw.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria brachiata, and appearing under that old name in 1996 paper.
Palicourea cuspidataObsoletePalicourea acuminatapsycacRubiaceae(Benth.) BorhidiThis was an error and is now corrected to P. acuminata. The mistake traces to misidentification of Psychotria acuminata as P. cuspidata in Panama (Taylor pers. comm.). When moving the name under Palicourea, we carried the incorrect new combination for a short time. Croat has the correct Psychotria acuminata and mentions the confusion with Psychotria cuspidata.
Palicourea cyanococcaAcceptedPalicourea cyanococcapsycpiRubiaceae(Seem. ex Dombrain) Borhidi
Palicourea deflexaAcceptedPalicourea deflexapsycdeRubiaceae(DC.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria deflexa, and appearing under that old name in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Palicourea guianensisAcceptedPalicourea guianensispaliguRubiaceaeAubl.
Palicourea hoffmannseggianaAcceptedPalicourea hoffmannseggianapsycfuRubiaceae(Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) BorhidiPsychotria furcata in Croat and the 1996 paper. Later Psychotria hoffmannseggiana before it was moved under Palicourea with many other Psychotria.
Palicourea racemosaAcceptedPalicourea racemosapsycraRubiaceae(Aubl.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria racemosa, and appearing under that old name in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Pavonia dasypetalaAcceptedPavonia dasypetalalopidaMalvaceaeTurcz.Formerly Lopimia dasypetala, following Croat, but this is the widely accepted classification, placing Lopimia within Pavonia (Fryxell). Hammel et al VI (2007) uses P. dasypetala without even mentioning Lopimia as synonym. This appears under the old L. dasypetala in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Pentagonia macrophyllaAcceptedPentagonia macrophyllapentmaRubiaceaeBenth.
Perebea xanthochymaAcceptedPerebea xanthochymaperexaMoraceaeH.Karst.
Phoebe cinnamomifoliaObsoleteCinnamomum triplinervephoeciLauraceaeWe used this in 1996 and 2004 papers for what Croat called P. mexicanum. We now consider Cinnamomum triplinerve the valid name.
Phoebe cinnamomifoliumObsoleteCinnamomum triplinervephoeciLauraceae(Kunth) NeesThis is a misspelling that showed up briefly in our database. We spelled it correctly, P. cinnamomifolia, in 1996 and 2004 papers. We now use Cinnamomum triplinerve for this taxon.
Phoebe mexicanaObsoleteCinnamomum triplinervephoeciLauraceaeMeisn.Croat used this name, but we changed to Phoebe cinnamomifolium for the 1996 and 2004 papers. That too is obsolete though, and we now use is Cinnamomum triplinerve. The combination C. cinnamomifolium has also been used, but never in our database.
Picramnia latifoliaAcceptedPicramnia latifoliapicrlaPicramniaceaeTul.
Piper aequaleAcceptedPiper aequalepipeaePiperaceaeVahl
Piper arboreumAcceptedPiper arboreumpipea1PiperaceaeAubl.
Piper carrilloanumObsoletePiper schiedeanumpipecaPiperaceaeThis is Croat's name, but Tebbs synonomized with P. schiedeanum in 1990. Most of Croat's BCI specimens are named P. schiedeanum now. We used P. carrilloanum in the 1996 paper. According to Callejas, P. carrilloanum remains a valid species, and in Panama, but not on BCI.
Piper colonenseAcceptedPiper colonensepipecuPiperaceaeC.DC.
Piper cordulatumAcceptedPiper cordulatumpipecoPiperaceaeC. DC.
Piper culebranumObsoletePiper colonensepipecuPiperaceaeCroat's BCI specimens at Tropicos identified (R. Callejas) as P. culebranum in 2006. However, Tebbs identified them as P. colonense in 1990. Callejas (and Tropicos) consider P. colonense and P. culebranum both valid species, both in central Panama, but BCI specimens are P. culebranum. Our 2004 paper has both species!!
Piper imperialeAcceptedPiper imperialepipeimPiperaceae(Miq.) C.DC.Croat had this correct, and our 1996 paper had it correct. At one point, the misspelling P. imperialis got in our database.
Piper imperialisObsoletePiper imperialepipeimPiperaceae(Miq.) C. DC.Correctly spelled P. imperiale. This bad spelling got into our database at one point, but never in any publicatcion.
Piper longispicumAcceptedPiper longispicumpipeloPiperaceaeC.DC.First identified in 50-ha plot in 2015. Not in Croat nor in 1996 or 2004 papers.
Piper perlasenseAcceptedPiper perlasensepipepePiperaceaeYunck.
Piper reticulatumAcceptedPiper reticulatumpiperePiperaceaeL.
Piper schiedeanumAcceptedPiper schiedeanumpipecaPiperaceaeSteud.Formerly P. carrilloanum in our data, and the 1996 paper, but we now follow Tebbs and use P. schiedeanum. However, a substantial confusion has arisen because Callejas identified many of Croat's BCI specimens as P. paulowniifolium. Flora Nicaragua by Callejas??
Pithecellobium macradeniumObsoleteAbarema macradeniapit1maFabaceae-mimosoideaeCurrently Abarema macradenia. We used the old name in 1996 paper. Barnebey and Grimes (1996) detailed phylogeny of Ingeae reduced Pithecelllobium enormously, and this taxon was transferred to Abarema, as A. macradenia.
Pithecellobium rufescensObsoleteCojoba rufescenspit1ruFabaceae-mimosoideaeThis is Croat’s name, and we used in name in 1996 paper but had updated to Cojoba rufescens in 2004 paper. Barnebey and Grimes (1996) detailed phylogeny of Ingeae reduced Pithecelllobium enormously.
Platymiscium pinnatumAcceptedPlatymiscium pinnatumpla1piFabaceae-papilionoideae(Jacq.) Dugand
Platypodium elegansAcceptedPlatypodium eleganspla2elFabaceae-papilionoideaeVogel
Pochota quinataAcceptedPochota quinatapochquBombacaceaeThis has been our most convoluted series of name changes. This was first Bombacopsis quinata, then Pochota quinata (which appears in 1996 paper), then Pachira quinata (in the 2004 paper), but now back to Pochota quinata. However, Pachira sessilis remains. See notes under Pachira quinata.
Pochota sessilisObsoletePachira sessilispochseBombacaceaeCurrent known as Pachira sessilis. See notes under Pachira quinata.
Pombalia prunifoliaAcceptedPombalia prunifoliahybaprViolaceae(Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Paula-SouzaOriginally Hybanthus prunifolius following Croat. Several new genera will be needed for Hybanthus (de Paula Souza and Balland 2014). See notes with H. prunifolius.
Posoqueria latifoliaAcceptedPosoqueria latifoliaposolaRubiaceae(Rudge) Schult.
Poulsenia armataAcceptedPoulsenia armatapoularMoraceae(Miq.) Standl.
Pourouma bicolorAcceptedPourouma bicolorpourbiUrticaceaeMart.This was P. guianensis in Croat, but we followed Berg and changed to this by the late 1980s. P. bicolor appears in 1996 and 2004 papers. A Tropicos specimen now carries the name P. chocoana, but Berg used P. bicolor subsp. chocoana and this is still accepted everywhere (see Flora Mes, CR).
Pourouma guianensisObsoletePourouma bicolorpourbiUrticaceaeCroat's name for the BCI Pourouma, and we used it at the outset of the 50-ha plot. Berg identified BCI specimens as P. bicolor subsp. chocoana. P. guianensis remains a valid, S. American taxa. P. guianensis never appeared in publications.
Pouteria fossicolaAcceptedPouteria fossicolapoutfoSapotaceaeCronquist
Pouteria reticulataAcceptedPouteria reticulatapoutreSapotaceae(Engl.) EymaWe originally followed Croat and called this P. unilocularis, a C. American taxon. Pennington lumped it and 4 other species, and the combined group is widespread and variable. We switched before any publicacions, so this appears as P. reticulata in both 1996 and 2004 papers.
Pouteria stipitataAcceptedPouteria stipitatapoutstSapotaceaeCronquist
Pouteria unilocularisObsoletePouteria reticulatapoutreSapotaceaeCroat used this C. American name, and we followed at the outset of the 50-ha plot. Pennington (1990) recognizes distinctions, but lumped 5 species, including this C. American form, under P. reticulata, and we made the switch by 1990. This appears as P. reticulata in both 1996 and 2004 papers.
Prioria copaiferaAcceptedPrioria copaiferapri2coFabaceae-caesalpinioideaeGriseb.
Protium confusumAcceptedProtium confusumprotspBurseraceae(Rose) PittierThis Protium could not be identified from Croat and was censused as a morphospecies until 2000, called Protium skinny; in the 1996 paper it was called Protium sp. nov. It was finally matched to P. confusum, not a new species.
Protium costaricenseAcceptedProtium costaricenseprotcoBurseraceae(Rose) Engl.
Protium panamenseAcceptedProtium panamenseprotpaBurseraceae(Rose) I.M.Johnst.
Protium skinnyObsoleteProtium confusumprotspBurseraceaeA morphospecies name for a distinct but unidentified Protium with narrow leaflets. Finally identified as P. confusum.
Protium sp. nov.ObsoleteProtium confusumprotspBurseraceaeThe name appearing in our 1996 paper for the unidentified Protium, known in our early databases as Protium skinny, later identified as P. confusum.
Protium tenuifoliumObsoleteProtium tenuifolium subsp. sessiliflorumprotteBurseraceaeEngl.A subspecies distinct from the BCI species, known only at two distant plots.
Protium tenuifolium subsp. sessiliflorumAcceptedProtium tenuifolium subsp. sessiliflorumprotteBurseraceaeEngl.A subspecies distinct from the BCI species, known only at two distant plots.
Pseudobombax septenatumAcceptedPseudobombax septenatumpse1seMalvaceae(Jacq.) Dugand
Psidium anglohondurenseObsoleteChamguava schippiicha2scMyrtaceaeCroat used this name, and we used this during the 1980s. We switched to Chamguava schippii by the 1996 and 2004 papers, following Landrum’s (1991) revision. See notes with the latter.
Psidium friedrichsthalianumAcceptedPsidium friedrichsthalianumpsidfrMyrtaceae(O.Berg) Nied.
Psychotria acuminataObsoletePalicourea acuminatapsycacRubiaceaeBenth.This is name that Croat used. C.M. Taylor et al (2015) moved several Psychotria to Palicourea. Taylor (pers. comm.) indicates many past collectors did not correctly understand character differences between genera. Many more Psychotria will be moved. See also Borhidi (2011) about the transfer.
Psychotria brachiataObsoletePalicourea brachiatapsycb1RubiaceaeSw.This is Croat’s name, and we used in 1996 paper. Moved to Psychotria following Borhidi2011.
Psychotria chagrensisAcceptedPsychotria chagrensispsycchRubiaceaeStandl.
Psychotria cyanococcaObsoletePalicourea cyanococcapsycpiRubiaceaeSeem. ex DombrainCurrently P. cyanococca, a prior name. No change in species circumscription (Taylor pers. comm.).
Psychotria deflexaObsoletePalicourea deflexapsycdeRubiaceaeDC.This is Croat’s name, and we used in 1996 and 2004 papers. Moved to Psychotria following Borhidi2011.
Psychotria furcataObsoletePalicourea hoffmannseggianapsycfuRubiaceaeCroat's name and the name appearing in 1996 paper, but we switched to P. hoffmannseggiana, following Burger and Taylor (Flora Costaricensis). This lumps the C. American/Choco P. furcata into a widespread species. As of 2011, this and many other Psychotria were moved under Palicourea.
Psychotria gracilifloraAcceptedPsychotria graciliflorapsycg1RubiaceaeBenth.Not in Croat but identified in 1982 census.
Psychotria granadensisObsoletePsychotria tenuifoliapsycg2RubiaceaeCroat's name and our original name, and we used in the 1996 paper. We later switched to P. tenuifolia following Hamilton (1989) Psychotria of C. America (Taylor pers. comm.).
Psychotria grandisAcceptedPsychotria grandispsycg3RubiaceaeSw.
Psychotria hoffmannseggianaObsoletePalicourea hoffmannseggianapsycfuRubiaceae(Willd. ex Schult.) Müll.Arg.Formerly P. furcata, but Burger and Taylor lumped C. American group under this. To further confusion, this was switched under Palicourea by Taylor (pers. comm.) and Borhidi2011 in the big revision of New World Psychotria.
Psychotria horizontalisAcceptedPsychotria horizontalispsychoRubiaceaeSw.
Psychotria limonensisAcceptedPsychotria limonensispsycliRubiaceaeK.Krause
Psychotria marginataAcceptedPsychotria marginatapsycmaRubiaceaeSw.
Psychotria pittieriObsoletePalicourea cyanococcapsycpiRubiaceaeStandl.Croat’s name, and we used in 1996 paper. Later switched to P. cyanococca, an earlier name for the same species found in Flora Nicaragua.
Psychotria psychotriifoliaAcceptedPsychotria psychotriifoliapsycpsRubiaceae(Seem.) Standl.Croat includes this, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until 1995 and is thus not in the 1996 paper.
Psychotria racemosaObsoletePalicourea racemosapsycraRubiaceaeRich.This is Croat’s name, and we used in 1996 paper. Moved to Psychotria following Borhidi2011.
Psychotria tenuifoliaAcceptedPsychotria tenuifoliapsycg2RubiaceaeSw.Formerly P. granadensis and published under that name in 1996 paper. Hamilton (1989) synonomized under this widespread S. American form, and Taylor (pers. comm.) agrees.
Pterocarpus belizenseObsoletePterocarpus officinalispterbeFabaceae-papilionoideaeAn old misspelling of P. belizensis briefly in our database, never appearing in print. See notes with P. belizensis.
Pterocarpus belizensisObsoletePterocarpus officinalispterbeFabaceae-papilionoideaeStandl.The 1996 paper uses this name for the rare BCI species, ie P. officianalis. Tropicos shows this as synonym of P. officianalis. But Henshold lists it as synonym of P. rohrii=P. hayesii, though that appears to be a misunderstanding. Robin believes he found a single specimen of a distinct Pterocarpus on BCI, ie a third species, and tentatively considered it was P. belizensis.
Pterocarpus hayesiiAcceptedPterocarpus hayesiipterroFabaceae-papilionoideaeHemsl.Formerly P. rohrii, and that old name was used in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Pterocarpus officinalisAcceptedPterocarpus officinalispterofFabaceae-papilionoideaeJacq.A swamp species, rare on BCI, only 9 in plot and dying off. We listed it as P. belizensis in 1996 paper, but that appears to be a miscommunication. This has always been P. officianalis since Croat's identification.
Pterocarpus rohriiObsoletePterocarpus hayesiipterroFabaceae-papilionoideaeVahlCroat’s name, and we followed in 1996 and 2004 papers. Later, following N. Zamora, we consider this P. hayesii, contra Tropicos. According to Zamora, P. hayesii and P. rohrii are different species, both valid, but P. rohrii is only in South America.
Quararibea asterolepisAcceptedQuararibea asterolepisquarasMalvaceaePittierWhether BCI specimens belong in Q. asterolepis subsp. stenophylla, Q. stenophylla, or Q. asterolepis, is unresolved at Tropicos.
Quassia amaraAcceptedQuassia amaraquasamSimaroubaceaeL.
Randia armataAcceptedRandia armatarandarRubiaceae(Sw.) DC.
Randia formosaObsoleteRosenbergiodendron formosumrandfoRubiaceaeCroat's and our original name, and we used it in 1996 paper. This, with a small set of Randia species, were split off into a new genus, and from 2004 paper this became Rosenbergiodendron formosum
Rauvolfia littoralisAcceptedRauvolfia littoralisrauvliApocynaceaeRusbyDoes not appear in Croat. Discovered on BCI in 50-ha plot in 1995 census.
Rheedia acuminataObsoleteGarcinia madrunogar2maClusiaceaeCroat’s name, now Garcinia madruno. See notes with R. edulis and Hammel (1989). We never published this name because we had changed before 1996.
Rheedia edulisObsoleteGarcinia reconditagar2inClusiaceaeCroat’s name, but Garcinia intermedia in the 1996 paper, now Garcinia recondita. We never published Rheedia because we had changed before 1996. Need for moving Rheedia to Garcinia was noted as early as 1958 by Robson (on African flora). Rheedia had been New World, but traits separating it from Garcinia are inconsistent. Hammel (1989) assigned new combination G. intermedia, since G. edulis was not available. No change in species boundary. Hammel’s reidentification of BCI specimens as G. recondita still not published as of 2017 (Hammel pers. comm.)
Rinorea sylvaticaAcceptedRinorea sylvaticarinosyViolaceae(Seem.) Kuntze
Rosenbergiodendron formosumAcceptedRosenbergiodendron formosumrandfoRubiaceae(Jacq.) Fagerl.Formerly Randia formosa and appearing as such in 1996 paper, changed to Rosenbergiodendron formosum by 2004 paper. This and 3 other species were shown to be outside Randia (DNA and morphology). The species circumscription was nearly unchanged, though a Guyana segregate was split, so the new R. formosum has a slightly smaller range (Taylor pers. comm.).
Sapium aucupariumObsoleteSapium glandulosumsapiauEuphorbiaceaeWe used this name in 1996 paper for what Croat called S. caudatum. Then Krujit (1996) moved S. aucuparium under S. glandulosum, which we have adopted. Specimens at Tropicos identified by R. Liesner as S. glandulosum. See notes under S. caudatum for further confusion about Croat’s names.
Sapium broadleafAcceptedSapium broadleafsapispEuphorbiaceae
Sapium caudatumObsoleteSapium glandulosumsapiauEuphorbiaceaePitt.There has been much confusion about Sapium names. Croat used this name, but Webster and Huft (1988) moved S. caudatum under S. aucuparium and discussed problems. We followed Croat and used S. caudatum when the 50-ha censuses started, but switched to S. aucuparium by the late 1980s. Croat also used S. aucuparium for a different taxon, but his description matches S. laurifolium. The latter, however, has never otherwise observed or collected at BCI, and that specimen should be S. glandulosum.
Sapium glandulosumAcceptedSapium glandulosumsapiauEuphorbiaceae(L.) MorongKrujit synonomized S. aucuparium with this. R. Liesner identifed BCI specimens as S. glandulosum.
Sapium sp 1ObsoleteSapium broadleafsapispEuphorbiaceaeWe used this name in the 2004 paper for the Sapium in the Sherman plot. They match Sapium broadleaf, the yet-to-be-described new species at BCI.
Sapium sp. nov.ObsoleteSapium broadleafsapispEuphorbiaceaeThe name we used in 1996 paper for what we call Sapium broadleaf. We believe it is a new species, yet undescribed, and M. Huft (pers. comm.) confirms. The Foster BCI specimen from the 50-ha plot remains unnamed at Tropicos (Foster 2942).
Scheelea zonensisObsoleteAttalea rostratasch1zoArecaceaeCroat’s name, and this appears in 1996 paper. Henderson eliminated Scheelea and moved into Attalea. This became A. butyracea in the 2004 paper.
Schefflera morototoniAcceptedSchefflera morototonisch2moAraliaceae(Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & FrodinWe originally used Didymopanax morototoni for this, following Croat. But Frodin (1975) moved the entire genus Didymopanax into Schefflera, as new species added blurred distinctions. A DNA phylogeny confirmed this (Fiaschi & Plunkett 2011). We had the correct S. morototoni in the 1996 and 2004 papers.
Schizolobium parahybaAcceptedSchizolobium parahybaschipaFabaceae-caesalpinioideae(Vell.) S.F. BlakeThis is the correct spelling of Croat's S. parahybum. We had the bad spelling in 1996 paper but corrected in database afterwards.
Schizolobium parahybumObsoleteSchizolobium parahybaschipaFabaceae-caesalpinioideaeCroat used this misspelling of S. parahyba. We repeated the error in the 1996 paper.
Senna dariensisAcceptedSenna dariensissenndaFabaceae-caesalpinioideae(Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & BarnebyFormerly Cassia fruticosa, but we had corrected to Senna by the 1996 and 2004 papers. Irwin and Barneby 1982 split Cassia into 3 genera, including Senna. Reviewed in Marazzi, with DNA phylogeny confirming monophyly of Senna. Known as S. dariensis var. gatunensis in Tropicos.
Simarouba amaraAcceptedSimarouba amarasimaamSimaroubaceaeAubl.
Siparuna cristataAcceptedSiparuna cristatasipacrSiparunaceae(Poepp. & Endl.) A. DC.On BCI, this was formerly identified as S. guianensis, following Croat. Renner re-identified the Tropicos on BCI specimens as S. cristata in 1999. See notes with S. guianensis.
Siparuna guianensisObsoleteSiparuna cristatasipaguSiparunaceaeAubl.Croat used S. guianensis for the less common BCI species of Siparuna, but those in the BCI plot are now reidentified S. cristata. We used the old name in early 50-ha plot censuses and it appears as S. guianensis in the 1996 paper. Though no longer known on BCI, S. guianensis remains a valid species in Panama, with many Canal Area specimens at Tropicos still called S. guianensis. We currently retain the name in 3 other plots, though those specimens may yet be re-identified.
Siparuna paucifloraAcceptedSiparuna pauciflorasipapaSiparunaceae(Beurl.) A. DC.
Sloanea ternifloraAcceptedSloanea terniflorasloateElaeocarpaceae(Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) Standl.
Socratea durissimaObsoleteSocratea exorrhizasocrexArecaceaeCroat used this name, a Central American taxon, and we followed in the 1982 census. But Croat acknowledged the possibility it is not distinct from the South American, S. exorrhiza, and we had switched by the late 1980s and used the S. exorrhiza in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Socratea exorrhizaAcceptedSocratea exorrhizasocrexArecaceae(Mart.) H.Wendl.We used this in 1996 and 2004 papers, changing from Croat, who called this S. durissima. See notes there. Henderson (1997) lumped S. durissima with the S. American S. exorrhiza.
Solanum arboreumAcceptedSolanum arboreumsolaarSolanaceaeDunal
Solanum argenteumObsoleteSolanum lepidotumsolastSolanaceaeDunalThis is Croat’s name, and we used it in 1982. It is, however, an Incorrect identification, now S. lepidotum. We mistakenly called it S. steyemarkii in 1996 paper, which is wrong taxon and misspelled (should be S. steyermarkii).
Solanum asperumAcceptedSolanum asperumsolaasSolanaceaeRich.
Solanum circinatumAcceptedSolanum circinatumcyphhaSolanaceaeBohsBohs (1995) collapsed entire genus Cyphomandra into Solanum. DNA phylogeny shows both it and Lycopersicon nested within Solanum. No change in species circumscription.
Solanum hayesiiAcceptedSolanum hayesiisolahaSolanaceaeFernald
Solanum lepidotumAcceptedSolanum lepidotumsolastSolanaceaeDunalNee says Panama and Andes specimens should be this, while E. Brazil specimens are different. So Brazil specimens were first argenteum, changed to lepidotum by Soto, changed back to argenteum by Nee
Solanum steyemarkiiObsoleteSolanum lepidotumsolastSolanaceaeThis is a misspelling of S. steyermarkii that appeared in our 1996 BCI paper. But the valid name is now S. lepidotum.
Solanum steyermarkiiObsoleteSolanum lepidotumsolastSolanaceaeCarvalhoCarvalho's describes this species as new and attributes all BCI specimens (including Robin's) to it. But there is much doubt: elevation range is otherwise given as > 500 m, and height range to 35 m. Knapp et al (2005) and Tropicos now reject it. Nee gives this as alt name for FMNH specimens of lepidotum.
Sorocea affinisAcceptedSorocea affinissoroafMoraceaeHemsl.
Spachea membranaceaAcceptedSpachea membranaceaspacmeMalpighiaceaeCuatrec.
Spondias mombinAcceptedSpondias mombinsponmoAnacardiaceaeL.
Spondias radlkoferiAcceptedSpondias radlkoferisponraAnacardiaceaeDonn.Sm.
Stemmadenia grandifloraObsoleteTabernaemontana grandiflorastemgrApocynaceae(Jacq.) MiersCroat's name, widely accepted across S. America, and we used it in 1996 and 2004 papers. Morales moved it, collapsing the entire genus under Tabernaemontana
Sterculia apetalaAcceptedSterculia apetalasterapMalvaceae(Jacq.) H.Karst.
Stylogyne standleyiObsoleteStylogyne turbacensisstylstMyrsinaceaeCroat used this name, a taxon described from BCI. We followed Croat, and this name appears in 1996 and 2004 papers. Ricketson and Pipoly (1997) synonomized under the wide-ranging S. turbacensis, saying that across the range, characters of several local taxa overlap with S. turbacensis.
Stylogyne turbacensisAcceptedStylogyne turbacensisstylstMyrsinaceae(Kunth) MezFormerly S. standleyi, in both 1996 and 2004 paper. We since switched to S. turbacensis, following the monograph of Ricketson and Pipoly (1997).
Swartzia simplex var. continentalisAcceptedSwartzia simplex var. continentalisswars2Fabaceae-papilionoideae(Sw.) Spreng.Formerly S. s. var. ochnaceae, and appearing as the latter in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Swartzia simplex var. grandifloraAcceptedSwartzia simplex var. grandifloraswars1Fabaceae-papilionoideae(Sw.) Spreng.Formerly S. s. var. ochnaceae, and appearing as the latter in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Swartzia simplex var. ochnaceaObsoleteSwartzia simplex var. continentalisswars2Fabaceae-papilionoideae(Sw.) Spreng.Formerly S. s. var. ochnaceae, and appearing as the latter in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Symphonia globuliferaAcceptedSymphonia globuliferasympglClusiaceaeL.f.
Tabebuia guayacanObsoleteHandroanthus guayacantab1guBignoniaceae(Seem.) Hemsl.DNA phylogeny shows the genus Tabebuia to be polyphyletic. and the yellow-fllowered taxa were moved into Handroanthus.
Tabebuia roseaAcceptedTabebuia roseatab1roBignoniaceae(Bertol.) DC.
Tabernaemontana arboreaAcceptedTabernaemontana arboreatab2arApocynaceaeRose ex J.D.Sm.
Tabernaemontana grandifloraAcceptedTabernaemontana grandiflorastemgrApocynaceaeJacq.Formerly Stemmadenia grandiflora, appearing as such in 1996 and 2004 papers. We are following Morales and placing it in Tabernaemontana.
Tachigalia versicolorObsoleteTachigali panamensistachveFabaceae-caesalpinioideaeThis is Croat’s misspelling of T. versicolor. We had it corrected by the 1996 paper, but used it in our own database for sometime before that.
Tachigali panamensisAcceptedTachigali panamensistachveFabaceae-caesalpinioideaevan der Werff & N.ZamoraFormerly T. versicolor, following Croat, but van der Werff in 2010 erected this new name for Panama specimens. This appears as T. versicolor in 1996 and 2004 papers.
Tachigali versicolorObsoleteTachigali panamensistachveFabaceae-caesalpinioideaeStandl. & L.O.WilliamsCroat’s name, and we used through 2015, including 1996 and 2004 papers. We now follow van der Werff et al. (2010) and use the new name T. panamensis. T. versicolor is valid but only in CR. It lacks pinnate stipule.
Talisia croatiiAcceptedTalisia croatiitaliprSapindaceaeAcev.-Rodr.Formerly T. princeps, but Acevedo-Rodriguez described in 2003, Fl. Neotrop.
Talisia nervosaAcceptedTalisia nervosatalineSapindaceaeRadlk.
Talisia princepsObsoleteTalisia croatiitaliprSapindaceaeOliv.Croat's original name, and we used in 1996 paper. Currently T. croatii.
Terminalia amazoniaAcceptedTerminalia amazoniatermamCombretaceae(J.F.Gmel.) ExellWe followed Croat’s error and spelled this incorrectly as T. amazonica through the 1996 paper. It was corrected in 2004 paper.
Terminalia amazonicaObsoleteTerminalia amazoniatermamCombretaceaeCroat’s incorrect spelling of T. amazonia; it appears in our 1996 paper but was corrected by the 2004 paper.
Terminalia chiriquensisObsoleteTerminalia oblongatermobCombretaceaeThis was Croat's name, but it was obsolete before the plot started. By 1981, Robin's specimens were identified as T. oblonga by Stace.
Terminalia oblongaAcceptedTerminalia oblongatermobCombretaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Steud.Our name since the plot began. Croat used T. chiriquensis, but that was synonomized before 1982. See Fl. Nic.
Ternstroemia tepezapoteAcceptedTernstroemia tepezapoteterntePentaphylacaceaeSchltdl. & Cham.
Tetragastris panamensisAcceptedTetragastris panamensistet2paBurseraceae(Engl.) Kuntze
Tetrathylacium johanseniiAcceptedTetrathylacium johanseniitet4joSalicaceaeStandl.
Theobroma cacaoAcceptedTheobroma cacaotheocaMalvaceaeL.
Thevetia ahouaiAcceptedThevetia ahouaithevahApocynaceae(L.) A.DC.
Tocoyena pittieriAcceptedTocoyena pittieritocopiRubiaceae(Standl.) Standl.
Tovomitopsis nicaraguensisObsoleteChrysochlamys eclipeschr1ecClusiaceaeOerst., Planch. & TrianaCroat used this name, but it is a double error. First, Tovomitopsis has been synonomized with Chrysoclamys more often than not for over 100 years; Hammel (1999) cleared this up in favor of Chrysoclamys. Second, C. nicaraguensis remains a valid species, but quite distinct, and not on BCI, where C. eclipes is correct. Hammel (1999) provides a clear explanation of all.
Trattinnickia asperaAcceptedTrattinnickia asperatratasBurseraceae(Standl.) Swart
Trema integerrimaAcceptedTrema integerrimatreminCannabaceae(Beurl.) Standl.Croat mentioned this taxon, but did not consider it present on BCI. In 2010, we reassessed the genus and recognized several individuals in the 50-ha plot as belonging to T. integerrima, formerly identified as T. micrantha. See notes with Trema unidentified.
Trema micranthaAcceptedTrema micranthatremmiCannabaceae(L.) BlumeAll Trema in the 50-ha plot were identified as this species until 2010. But several individuals that had been alive prior to 2010 (one back to 1990) were reidentified, forcing us to reassess the genus. See notes with Trema unidentified.
Trema unidentifiedAcceptedTrema unidentifiedtremspCannabaceaeBecause we reassessed the genus in 2010, any individuals of Trema that had died earlier could not be reidentified, and all are now called Trema unidentified.
Trichanthera giganteaAcceptedTrichanthera giganteatri1giAcanthaceae(Bonpl.) Nees
Trichilia cipoObsoleteTrichilia tuberculatatri2tuMeliaceae(A. Juss.) C. DC.Croat's misidentification of T. tuberculata, but Pennington corrected by 1981, also in Pennington (2016). T. cipo is valid but only in S. America. We had changed to T. tuberculata before the plot census began, following Pennington (1981). Tropicos still has Panama specimens, including Croat’s from BCI, under the erroneous T. cipo.
Trichilia montanaObsoleteTrichilia pallidatri2paMeliaceaeCroat's name, but we had changed to T. pallida before the plot census began, following Pennington in Fl. Neotrop.
Trichilia pallidaAcceptedTrichilia pallidatri2paMeliaceaeSw.Listed as T. montana in Croat, but we had changed to T. pallida before the plot began (Pennington 1981).
Trichilia tuberculataAcceptedTrichilia tuberculatatri2tuMeliaceae(Triana & Planch.) C. DC.Listed as T. cipo in Croat, but we had corrected to T. tuberculata before the plot began (Pennington 1981).
Trichospermum galeottiiAcceptedTrichospermum galeottiitri4gaMalvaceae(Turcz.) Kosterm.Croat listed as T. mexicanum, but that name was obsolete by the early 1980s. BCI specimens renamed by Meijer in 1980 (see Fl. Nic.).
Trichospermum mexicanumObsoleteTrichospermum galeottiitri4gaMalvaceae(DC.) Baill.Croat's name, but we had changed to T. galeottii by 1982, and both 1996 and 2004 papers list T. galeottii.
Triplaris cumingianaAcceptedTriplaris cumingianatripcuPolygonaceaeFisch. & C.A.Mey.
Trophis caucanaAcceptedTrophis caucanaolmeasMoraceae(Pittier) C.C. BergOriginally Olmedia aspera, and that older name appeared in 1996 paper. Updated to Trophis caucana, following Berg (1988). See notes under Olmedia.
Trophis racemosaAcceptedTrophis racemosatropraMoraceae(L.) Urb.
Turpinia occidentalisAcceptedTurpinia occidentalisturpocTapisciaceae(Sw.) G.Don
Unidentified speciesAcceptedUnidentified speciesunidenUnknown
Unonopsis pittieriAcceptedUnonopsis pittieriunonpiAnnonaceaeSaff.
Urera bacciferaAcceptedUrera bacciferaurerbaUrticaceae(L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd.Not in Croat but identified in 1982 census.
Vachellia melanocerasAcceptedVachellia melanocerasacacmeFabaceae(Beurl.) Seigler & EbingerFormerly Acacia melanoceras through 2015, following Croat’s originally name. A long-running and heated debate finally ended around 2010 with the American Acacia settling in two new genera, Vachellia and Senegalia.
Vasconcellea caulifloraAcceptedVasconcellea caulifloracaricaCaricaceae(Jacq.) A.DC.This species appears in Croat as Carica cauliflora, but the species was not found in the 50-ha plot until 2010. We identified it in other plots in the 1990s, though, using the old name, but it is now updated to V. califlora in our database. (Badillo 2000 in Ernstia).
Verbesina giganteaAcceptedVerbesina giganteaverbgiAsteraceaeJacq.Croat included this taxon, but it was not identified in the 50-ha plot until the 2000 census and thus does not appear in 1996 paper.
Virola bozoObsoleteVirola multifloravirospMyristicaceaeOur original name in 1982 for a Virola not matching any known BCI species. In the 1996 paper, it appears as Virola sp. nov., as if it was a novel species. But it was later identified as V. multiflora
Virola multifloraAcceptedVirola multifloravirospMyristicaceae(Standl.) A.C.Sm.Labeled as unidentified morphospecies V. bozo in original BCI census, and listed as Virola sp. nov. in 1996 paper. By the 2004 paper, it was identified and appears as V. mutliflora there.
Virola nobilisAcceptedVirola nobilisvirosuMyristicaceaeA.C. Sm.Croat published V. surinamensis for the tallest BCI Virola, but lists V. nobilis as a synonym, and originally identified specimens as V. nobilis. Later, Gentry incorrectly reidentified as V. surinamensis. Rodriguez in 2007 identified BCI specimens as V. nobilis, but Tropicos has both names in Panama and Costa Rica.
Virola sebiferaAcceptedVirola sebiferaviroseMyristicaceaeAubl.
Virola sp. nov.ObsoleteVirola multifloravirospMyristicaceaeThis is the name used in the 1996 paper for the Virola morphospecies, given the less stodgy name of Virola bozo in our databases. Later identified as V. multiflora, not a new species at all.
Virola surinamensisObsoleteVirola nobilisvirosuMyristicaceae(Rol. ex Rottb.) Warb.This was Croat’s name, following an early misidentification of Gentry’s; we published it in the 1996 and 2004 papers (Croat listed V. nobilis as a synonym). As of 2007, however, Rodriguez advised that BCI specimens are V. nobilis. V. surinamensis remains valid in S. America. See more comments under V. nobilis.
Vismia bacciferaAcceptedVismia bacciferavismbaClusiaceae(L.) Triana & Planch.
Vismia billbergianaAcceptedVismia billbergianavismbiClusiaceaeBeurl.
Vismia macrophyllaAcceptedVismia macrophyllavismmaClusiaceaeKunth
Vochysia ferrugineaAcceptedVochysia ferrugineavochfeVochysiaceaeMart.
Xylopia macranthaAcceptedXylopia macranthaxyl1maAnnonaceaeTriana & Planch.
Xylosma chloranthaAcceptedXylosma chloranthaxyl2chSalicaceaeDonn.Sm.Croat misspelled this X. chloranthum and we repeated the error in the 1996 paper.
Xylosma chloranthumObsoleteXylosma chloranthaxyl2chSalicaceaeCroat's misspelling of X. chorantha. We used it in the 1997 paper. As for X. oligandra, silly Latin gender.
Xylosma oligandraAcceptedXylosma oligandraxyl2olSalicaceaeDonn. Sm.Croat misspelled this X. oligandrum and we repeated the error in the 1996 paper.
Xylosma oligandrumObsoleteXylosma oligandraxyl2olSalicaceaeCroat's misspelling of X. oligandrum. We used it in the 1997 paper. As for X. chlorantha, silly Latin gender.
Zanthoxylum acuminatumAcceptedZanthoxylum acuminatumzantprRutaceae(Sw.) Sw.Originally Z. procerum in Croat, and in our 1996 paper under that name. We then used Z. juniperinum for some time, and that's how it appeared in 2004 paper. Reynel identified all BCI specimens at Tropicos as this in 1993, with subsp. juniperinum.
Zanthoxylum belizenseObsoleteZanthoxylum ekmaniizantbeRutaceaeCroat's name, and we used in 1996 paper. Reynel reidentified BCI specimens as Z. ekmanii in 1993. Reynel (1995) PhD dissertation not yet consulted. Also see Manual CR.
Zanthoxylum ekmaniiAcceptedZanthoxylum ekmaniizantbeRutaceae(Urb.) AlainFormerly Z. belizense, reidentified by Reynel in 1993 at Tropicos.
Zanthoxylum juniperinumObsoleteZanthoxylum panamensezantprRutaceaePoepp.This name is used for Z. procerum/Z. acuminatum subsp. juniperinum by several treatments. See Manual CR. We used it in 2004 paper, but Z. procerum (following Croat) in the 1996 paper.
Zanthoxylum panamenseAcceptedZanthoxylum panamensezantp1RutaceaeP.Wilson
Zanthoxylum procerumObsoleteZanthoxylum acuminatumzantprRutaceaeName used by Croat, and we used through 1996 paper. Reynel identified Croat's BCI specimen as Z. acuminatum subsp. juniperinum in 1995. Reynel (1995) PhD dissertation not seen yet.
Zanthoxylum setulosumAcceptedZanthoxylum setulosumzantseRutaceaeP.Wilson
Zuelania guidoniaAcceptedZuelania guidoniazuelguSalicaceae(Sw.) Britton & Millsp.

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