BCI 50-ha plot taxonomy

R. Condit, R. Pérez, S. Lao, S. Aguilar, S. Hubbell, R. Foster

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Currently accepted names for all tree species in the BCI 50-ha plot

All currently used Latin names for the 328 taxa in the plot, as of May,2018. If changes have been made since the plot started, the obsolete Latin names are included. The current species mnemonic and any prior species mnemonics are also included. Some notes on taxonomy are those taxa that have changed. The 1996 paper often mention is the first publication listing all species in the plot, and any name appearing in that paper's table, and changed since, is cross-referenced mentioned here. The 2004 paper likewise mentioned was the second listing most taxa, and again names appearing there are cross-referenced. Many other references are cited, but that bibliography is still not finished. Clicking a column will sort, and any name can be entered in the Search box to filter on it. Clicking on the arrow over a column sorts by the column, and the search box filters all records with any characters entered (eg a genus name, or the *). This table can be downloaded from a Smithsonian library archive.

LatinMnemonicFamilyAuthorityNotesakapast code
Abarema macradeniapit1maFabaceae-mimosoideae(Pittier) Barneby & J.W. GrimesFormerly Pithecellobium macradenium and appeared in 1996 paper under that old name. Pithecellobium was an enormously broad mix of of many taxa. Barnebey and Grimes (1996) did a detailed phylogeny of Ingeae, many of which (except Inga and Calliandra) were once Pithecellobium. The genus revisions do not alter species boundaries here. Pithecellobium macradeniumpitm
Acalypha diversifoliaacaldiEuphorbiaceaeJacq.acad
Acalypha macrostachyaacalmaEuphorbiaceaeJacq.aca2
Adelia trilobaade1trEuphorbiaceae(Müll.Arg.) Hemsl.adet
Aegiphila panamensisaegipaLamiaceaeMoldenkeaegp
Alchornea costaricensisalchcoEuphorbiaceaePax & K.Hoffm.alcc
Alchornea latifoliaalchlaEuphorbiaceaeSw.alcl
Alibertia dwyeriboropaRubiaceaeDelprete & C.H.Perss.Formerly B. panamensis. Entire genus of Borojoa, with 3 species, collapsed into Alibertia, without any changes in species boundaries. The name dwyeri was necessary because there is another A. panamensis. There was a single sapling in this taxon since 1982 (died in 2015), but the name is not in Croat nor the 1996 paper. It must have been identified later?Borojoa panamensis
Alibertia edulisalibedRubiaceae(Rich.) A.Rich. ex DC.alie
Allophylus psilospermusallopsSapindaceaeRadlk.allp
Alseis blackianaalseblRubiaceaeHemsl.alsb
Amaioua corymbosaamaicoRubiaceaeKunthamac
Anacardium excelsumanacexAnacardiaceae(Bertero & Balb. ex Kunth) Skeelsanae
Anaxagorea panamensisanaxpaAnnonaceaeStandl.anap
Andira inermisandiinFabaceae-papilionoideae(W. Wright) Kunth ex DC.andi
Annona acuminataannoacAnnonaceaeSaff.anna
Annona hayesiiannohaAnnonaceaeSaff.annh
Annona spragueiannospAnnonaceaeSaff.anns
Apeiba hybridapeihyMalvaceaeapeh
Apeiba membranaceaapeimeMalvaceaeSpruce ex Benth.This is Croat's name and is the accepted name for a widespread Central and South American species. But A. membranacea has regularly been misidentified as A. aspera, leading us to use that incorrect name for a period. We used A. membranaceae correctly through the 1996 paper, but then the incorrect A. aspera in the 2004 paper. We have now restored the correct A. membranacea. Apeiba asperaapem
Apeiba tibourbouapeitiMalvaceaeAubl.apet
Aphelandra sinclairianaaphesiAcanthaceaeNeesaphs
Appunia seibertiiappuseRubiaceaeStandl.Not in Croat but identified in 1982 census, and we used in the 1996 paper; now we have reverted to it as of 2017. Steyermark (1972) and Taylor and Steyermark (Flora of NG Shield) moved Appunia within a broad Morinda, but others, however, maintained Appunia separate. Later DNA phylogeny (Razafimandimbison 2009, 2011) shows Morinda to be polyphyletic. They decided to restore Appunia, and Tropicos follows this latest. Morinda seibertii
Ardisia bartlettiiardibaMyrsinaceaeLundellardb
Ardisia guianensisardiguMyrsinaceae(Aubl.) Mezardg
Ardisia standleyanaardifeMyrsinaceaeP.H.AllenThis was formely A. fendleri, and appeared as that old name in 1996 and 2004 papers. We switched to A. standleyana subsequently. There is confusion, though, as Ricketson and Pipoly reverted most BCI specimens to A. fendleri after 2006. Moreover, A. copeyana appears on one BCI specimen, though it is otherwise only at high elevation. Must check Man. CR and Fl. Nic.Ardisia fendleriardf
Aspidosperma desmanthumaspicrApocynaceaeThis genus is now in a state of confusion, largely because a PhD dissertation finished in 1999 (K. Potgieter), which makes many revisions, has not been published, so multiple names are still around. Potgieter advises that A. desmanthum should be used for the common BCI species. In the past, we used three other names: A. cruenta, A. cruentum, and A. spruceanum. The first is a misspelling, following Croat, and we published it in both the 1996 and 2004 papers. To put a cap on this, confusion goes full circle in 2018, with Morales restoring A. cruentum to Panama records, including BCI, contra Potgieter.Aspidosperma cruenta
Aspidosperma cruentum
Aspidosperma spruceanum
Astrocaryum standleyanumast1stArecaceaeL.H.Baileyasts
Astronium graveolensast2grAnacardiaceaeJacq.astg
Attalea rostratasch1zoArecaceaeOerst.Formerly Scheelea zonensis, and we published under that name in 1996 paper, then A. butyracea, which we used in 2004 paper. We are following Garwood, who used A. rostrata, the Central American form, distinct from S. American A. butyracea. Note that Tropicos still uses A. butyracea.Attalea butyracea
Scheelea zonensis
Bactris barronisbactbaArecaceaeL.H.Baileybacb
Bactris coloniatabactc1ArecaceaeL.H.Baileybac1
Bactris coloradonisbactc2ArecaceaeL.H.Baileybac2
Bactris majorbactmaArecaceaeJacq.bacm
Banara guianensisbanaguSalicaceaeAubl.Croat includes this taxon, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until the 1990 census, and it subsequently died out.bang
Beilschmiedia tovarensisbeilpeLauraceae(Klotzsch & H.Karst. ex Meisn.) Sachiko NishidaWe called this B. pendula for 30 years, and it appears under that name in 1996 and 2004 papers. But Nishida (1999) lists BCI specimens under B. tovarensis. He explains details of the differences at length, and they are subtle.Beilschmiedia pendulabeip
Bertiera guianensisbertguRubiaceaeAubl.berg
Brosimum alicastrumbrosalMoraceaeSw.broa
Brosimum guianensebrosguMoraceae(Aubl.) HuberNote misspelling in Appendix, but not main table, of 1996 paper.brog
Calophyllum longifoliumcaloloClusiaceaeWilld.cal2
Capparidastrum frondosumcappfrCapparaceae(Jacq.) Cornejo & IltisFormerly Capparis frondosa. See notes under that name.Capparis frondosacapf
Casearia aculeatacaseacSalicaceaeJacq.cas1
Casearia arboreacasearSalicaceae(Rich.) Urb.case1
Casearia commersonianacasecoSalicaceaeCambess.casc
Casearia guianensiscaseguSalicaceae(Aubl.) Urb.casg
Casearia sylvestriscasesySalicaceaeSw.cass
Cassipourea ellipticacasselRhizophoraceae(Sw.) Poir.cas3
Cavanillesia platanifoliacavaplMalvaceae(Bonpl.) Kunthcavp
Cecropia insigniscecrinUrticaceaeLiebm.ceci
Cecropia longipescecrloUrticaceaePittierIncluded in Croat but did not appear in the 50-ha plot until 1995 census, so does not appear in 1996 paper.cecl
Cecropia obtusifoliacecrobUrticaceaeBertol.ceco
Cedrela odoratacedrodMeliaceaeL.cedo
Ceiba pentandraceibpeMalvaceae(L.) Gaertn.ceip
Celtis schippiiceltscCannabaceaeStandl.cels
Cespedesia spathulatacespmaOchnaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Planch.Formerly C. macrophylla. Cespedesia now considered monotypic, with nine names united under one widespread species. See Fl. Nic. We used the old species name, macrophylla, and Croat’s misspelling of the genus, so published this under Cespedezia macrophylla in both 1996 and 2004 papers.Cespedesia macrophylla
Cespedezia macrophylla
Cestrum racemosumcestraSolanaceaeRuiz & Pav.Croat included this taxon, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until the 2015 census.cesr
Cestrum schlechtendahliicestmeSolanaceaeG.DonWe originally followed Croat and used C. megalophyllum in 1996 and 2004 papers. Nee reidentified all Croat's BCI specimens as C. schlechtendahlii in 2013. This is a question of name priority for same species circumpscription?? See Manual CR. Cestrum megalophyllumces2
Chamaedorea tepejilotecha1teArecaceaeLiebm.Formerly C. wendlandiana, but we switched by the 1996 paper. Lumped by Henderson (1997).Chamaedorea wendlandianachaw
Chamguava schippiicha2scMyrtaceae(Standl.) LandrumA small group of 3 rare C. American species, formerly Eugenia, moved to Psidium in 1963, and we initially used Croat’s name, Psidium anglohondurense. The new genus Chamguava was erected in 1991 by Landrum based on embryological details that separate it from Psidium; Chamguava is in a small group with Pimenta. The BCI population is the only one known s. of Guatemala, and one of 3 species only seen 3 times in the 1940s. No change in species boundaries. Huge DNA phylogeny (2015) does not include Chamguava, presumably due to rarity.Psidium anglohondurensepsia
Chimarrhis parviflorachimpaRubiaceaeStandl.chip
Chrysochlamys eclipeschr1ecClusiaceaeL.O.WilliamsWe originally followed Croat and used T. nicaraguensis, but now corrected to Chrysochlamys eclipses. We had switched to C. eclipes by 1996 paper, so no publication uses old name. See notes for T. nicaraguensis and Hammel (1999).Tovomitopsis nicaraguensistovn
Chrysophyllum argenteumchr2arSapotaceaeJacq.We used this name by 1996 and 2004 papers. In Croat, this was Cynodendron panamense, but Pennington (1990) lumped several species under C. argenteum as a subspecies. The name Chrysophyllum panamense has also been used, but never in our data.Chrysophyllum panamense
Cynodendron panamense
Chrysophyllum cainitochr2caSapotaceaeL.Pennington (1990) is certain this is not native to Panama.chrc
Cinnamomum triplinervephoeciLauraceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Kosterm.This was formerly Phoebe cinnamomifolia, and appeared as such in 1996 and 2004 papers. Croat called in P. mexicanum. See Fl. Nic.Phoebe cinnamomifolia
Phoebe cinnamomifolium
Phoebe mexicana
Clidemia dentatacliddeMelastomataceaePav. ex D. DonClidemia is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.clid
Clidemia octonaclidocMelastomataceae(Bonpl.) L.O. WilliamsClidemia is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.clio
Clidemia septuplinerviaclidseMelastomataceaeCogn.Clidemia is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.clis
Coccoloba coronatacocccoPolygonaceaeJacq.cocc
Coccoloba manzinellensiscoccmaPolygonaceaeBeurl.We spelled this incorrectly in 1996, copying Croat's error C. manzanellensis. We propagated the misspelling in the 1996 paper, but corrected it by the 2004 paper.Coccoloba manzanillensiscocm
Cojoba rufescenspit1ruFabaceae-mimosoideae(Benth.) Britton & RoseFormerly Pithecellobium rufescens, and appears as such in 1996 paper. But Pithecellobium was an enormously broad mix of of many taxa. Barnebey and Grimes (1996) did a detailed phylogeny of Ingeae, many of which (except Inga and Calliandra) were once Pithecellobium. Cojoba is related to Inga and Calliandra according to Barneby and Grimes. The genus revisions do not alter species boundaries here. Pithecellobium rufescenspitr
Colubrina glandulosacoluglRhamnaceaePerkinscolg
Conostegia bracteataconobrMelastomataceaeTrianaconb
Conostegia cinnamomeaconociMelastomataceae(Beurl.) Wurdackconc
Cordia alliodoracordalCordiaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Okencora
Cordia bicolorcordbiCordiaceaeA.DC.corb
Cordia lasiocalyxcordlaCordiaceaePittiercorl
Coussarea curvigemmiacou2cuRubiaceaeDwyercouc
Coutarea hexandracoutheRubiaceae(Jacq.) K.Schum.couh
Croton billbergianuscrotbiEuphorbiaceaeMüll.Arg.crob
Cupania cinereacupaciSapindaceaePoepp.cupc
Cupania latifoliacupalaSapindaceaeKunthcupl
Cupania rufescenscuparuSapindaceaeTriana & Planch.cupr
Cupania seemanniicupasySapindaceaeTriana & Planch.Seemann himself named it C. sylvatica in 1853 (Voyage of the Heald), however in 1862 Triana and Planch changed to C. seemanni saying C. sylvatica was already in use for a Brazilian specimen. But Croat used the old C. sylvatica, though he indicated C. seemannii as a synonym.Cupania sylvaticacups
Cyathea petiolatacnempeCyatheaceae(Hook.) R.M. TryonDNA phylogenies of tree ferns rearranged much traditional taxonomy. Cnemidaria is nested within Cyathea. No change species boundary.Cnemidaria petiolatacnep
Damburneya umbrosanectpuLauraceae(Kunth) TrofimovOne group of Nectandra now split into this genus, an old name that had been subsumed into Nectandra, now resurrected on molecular results. This was originally Nectandra purpurea, reidentified as N. umbrosa, but the latter never go into the database (for BCI specimens, but yes for one at Sherman) or any publication. Nectandra purpurascens
Nectandra purpurea
Nectandra savannarum
Nectandra umbrosa
Dendropanax arboreusdendarAraliaceae(L.) Decne. & Planch.What we currently call all Dendropanax in the 50-ha plot, but variation may require 4 species. Some D. arboreus at BCI now recognized as D. caucanus by Cannon, or D. concinnus by N. Hensold (the latter not valid according to Tropicos). See Cannon and Cannon (1989) about variability of widespread D. arboreus, and Hensold suggests hybridization or introgression might be blurring boundaries. The group requires revision, and individuals within the plot may need to be divided. Garwood supports a division of Croat's D. arboreus into D. caucanus and D. arboreus. See also notes with D. stenodontus about yet another possible taxon.Dendropanax stenodontusdendst
Desmopsis panamensisdes2paAnnonaceae(B.L.Rob.) Saff.desp
Diospyros artanthifoliadio2arEbenaceaeMart. ex Miq.dio2
Dipteryx oleiferadiptpaFabaceae-papilionoideaeBenth.Formerly D. panamensis. The two names appear to be used interchangeably for a species collected from Nicaragua through the Colombian choco, plus one in Ecuador. At Tropicos, de Lima named BCI specimens D. oleifera in 1986, but Klitgaard renamed D. panamensis in 2007. D. oleifera is the early name, but without specimens. The rules committee voted to accept it (Brummitt 2011).Dipteryx panamensisdipp
Drypetes standleyidrypstPutranjivaceaeG.L.Websterdrys
Elaeis oleiferaelaeolArecaceae(Kunth) Cortéselao
Enterolobium schomburgkiientescFabaceae-mimosoideae(Benth.) Benth.ents
Erythrina costaricensisery1coFabaceae-papilionoideaeMichelieryc
Erythroxylum macrophyllumery2maErythroxylaceaeCav.Formerly E. multiflorum, a name from Canal Area in 1940. Plowman synonomized it and other local names under the widespread and variable E. macrophyllum. See also Hammel et al (2010) treating E. multiflorum under this. Appendix of 1996 paper failed to list E. multiflorum as Croat’s name for this taxa.Erythroxylum multiflorumerym
Erythroxylum panamenseery2paErythroxylaceaeTurcz.eryp
Eugenia coloradoensiseugecoMyrtaceaeStandl.Eugenia coloradensiseugc
Eugenia galalonensiseugegaMyrtaceae(C.Wright ex Griseb.) Krug & Urb.eugg
Eugenia nesioticaeugeneMyrtaceaeStandl.eugn
Eugenia oerstedianaeugeoeMyrtaceaeO.BergThis was listed under Croat’s misspelling, E. oerstedeana, in the 1996 paper.Eugenia oerstedeanaeugo
Faramea occidentalisfaraocRubiaceae(L.) A.Rich.faro
Ficus citrifoliaficuciMoraceaeMill.fici
Ficus colubrinaeficuc1MoraceaeStandl.fic1
Ficus costaricanaficuc2Moraceae(Liebm.) Miq.fic2
Ficus insipidaficuinMoraceaeWilld.fiin
Ficus matizianaficubuMoraceaeDugandFormerly F. bullenei, following Croat, and appearing under that name in 1996 and 2004 papers. Garwood (2009) retained F. bullenei.Ficus bullenei
Ficus maximaficumaMoraceaeMill.fima
Ficus obtusifoliaficuobMoraceaeKunthfiob
Ficus pertusaficupeMoraceaeL.f.ficup2
Ficus popenoeificupoMoraceaeStandl.fipo
Ficus tonduziificutoMoraceaeStandl.fito
Ficus trigonataficutrMoraceaeL.Croat’s name and ours originally for the 50-ha plot, appearing in 1996 paper (though mispelled as F. trigonta). We then mistakely listed as F. aurea for several years. Garwood uses trigonata, but indicates a complex of distinct types. However, now Berg says Panama specimens should be F. crocata and that F. trigonata is restricted to the Antilles; he describes variation in detail.Ficus aurea
Ficus trigonta
Ficus yoponensisficuyoMoraceaeDesv.fiyo
Garcinia madrunogar2maClusiaceae(Kunth) HammelFormerly R. acuminata. See notes for G. intermedia and Hammel (1989). We had switched before 1996, so this is in 1996 and 2004 papers.Rheedia acuminatarhea
Garcinia reconditagar2inClusiaceaeHammelHammel described this species around 2015, though still not published (Hammel pers. comm.). All BCI specimens of R. edulis/G. intermedia now identified at Tropicos as G. recondita, but G. intermedia remains valid elsewhere in Panama.Garcinia intermedia
Rheedia edulis
Genipa americanageniamRubiaceaeL.gena
Geonoma interruptageoninArecaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.geoi
Guapira standleyanaguapstNyctaginaceaeWoodsonWe misspelled this G. standleyanum in the 1996 paper, copying the error from Croat.Guapira standleyanumguas
Guarea bullataguarspMeliaceaeRadlk.We finally identified the fuzzy-leaved Guarea morphospecies as this after 2004. G. bullata has been known in other parts of Panama since at least the 1960s. Impressed venation is distinctive, otherwise very similar and closely related to G. glabra.Guarea fuzzy
Guarea sp. 1
Guarea sp. nov.
Guarea grandifoliaguargrMeliaceae(L.) SleumerBCI specimens of G. multiflora were renamed this before plot started (Pennington in 1979 on Mobot sheets, eg Croat 8443, 11300).Guarea multifloragua1
Guarea guidoniaguarguMeliaceae(L.) SleumerIdentified as G. glabra in Croat. Foster reidentified by 1981; G. glabra should have glabrous ovary and few lenticels, small flowers relative to G. guidonia. gua2
Guatteria lucensguatduAnnonaceaeStandl.We knew this as G. dumetorum for 30 years, and see notes there. Maas (2015) provides details about slight leaf differences between the dumetorum type and lucens type, but indicates that in all other ways the two are indistringuishable. Both types also have the same range, in Costa Rica and Panama, so though the species circumscription was widened by lumping, the range was not.Guatteria dumetorumguad
Guazuma ulmifoliaguazulMalvaceaeLam.guau
Guettarda foliaceaguetfoRubiaceaeStandl.guef
Gustavia superbagustsuLecythidaceae(Kunth) O.Bergguss
Hamelia axillarishameaxRubiaceaeSw.ham1
Hamelia patenshamepaRubiaceaeJacq.hamp
Hampea appendiculatahampapMalvaceae(Donn.Sm.) Standl.ham2
Handroanthus guayacantab1guBignoniaceae(Seem.) S.O.GroseFormerly Tabebuia guayacan, and appeared as that name in 1996 and 2004 papers. Handroanthus is an old name, and morphological distinctions were known since the 19th century.Tabebuia guayacantabg
Hasseltia floribundahassflSalicaceaeKunthhasf
Heisteria acuminataheisacErythropalaceae(Humb. & Bonpl.) Engl.Known as H. longipes in Croat, but we used this name from the very start, and it appears in both 1996 and 2004 paper use this. Sleumer explains that Heisteria are not identifiable based only on flowers or fruits and leaves are needed. He collapsed many local species under H. acuminata, and all Tropicos specimens formerly called H. longipes now identified as H. acuminata by S. Knapp, R. Liesner, H. Sleumer.Heisteria longipesheia
Heisteria concinnaheiscoErythropalaceaeStandl.heic
Herrania purpureaherrpuMalvaceae(Pittier) R.E. Schult.herp
Hieronyma alchorneoideshyeralEuphorbiaceaeAllemãoFranco reidentified BCI specimens in 1989 and published a major revision, collapsing H. laxiflora and other widespread varieties. Major broadening of range, however many local names are still listed as valid at Tropicos. Franco recognizes two varieties of H. alchorneoides, both among Croat's BCI specimens, but this is stipule difference between adults and juveniles (Hensold).Hyeronima alcheornoides
Hyeronima laxiflora
Hirtella americanahirtamChrysobalanaceaeL.hira
Hirtella triandrahirttrChrysobalanaceaeSw.hirt
Hura crepitanshuracrEuphorbiaceaeL.hurc
Inga acuminataingas1Fabaceae-mimosoideaeBenth.Originally censused as Inga skinny, an unidentified morphospecies. Croat did not include this species, and we finally got it identified in 1989 (Zamora). It was not (??) known in Panama until then. We had it as I. acuminata in the 1996 paper.Inga skinnyins1
Inga cocleensisingacoFabaceae-mimosoideaePittierThe identification of this species in the 50-ha plot has been reassessed. See detailed notes under I. thibaudiana and I. unidentified.inco
Inga goldmaniiingagoFabaceae-mimosoideaePittieringo
Inga laurinaingafaFabaceae-mimosoideae(Sw.) Willd.Originally I. fagifolia, following Croat, but I. laurina was synonomized with I. fagifolia in Pennington's (1997) revision of the entire genus. We used I. fagifolia in the 1996 paper but I. laurina in the 2004 paper.Inga fagifoliainfa
Inga marginataingamaFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.Inga semialatainma
Inga mucunaingam1Fabaceae-mimosoideaeWalp. & Duchass.inm1
Inga nobilisingaquFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.Originally I. quaternata, following Croat, but we now follow Pennington (1997), in which I. quaternata was synonomized with I. nobilis. In 2004 paper, we had changed to this. C. American specimens are subsp. quaternata, and S. American are subsp. nobilis, but Pennington explains that there are intermediates in between and sometime one plant mixes the two different flower forms. We used I. quaternata in the 1996 paper but I. nobilis in the 2004 paper. See notes on recent confusion under I. quaternata.Inga quaternatainqu
Inga oerstedianaingamiFabaceae-mimosoideaeBenth.Originally I. minutula, following Croat, and appeared as such in the 1996 paper. Pennington's (1997) synonomized I. minutula under I. oerstediana, and Tropicos BCI specimens were identified as I. oerstediana in 1990 (Sousa). I. oerstediana is closely related to and possibly conspecific with I. edulis.Inga minutulainmi
Inga peziziferaingapeFabaceae-mimosoideaeBenth.inpe
Inga punctataingapuFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.inpu
Inga ruizianaingaruFabaceae-mimosoideaeG.Doninru
Inga sapindoidesingasaFabaceae-mimosoideaeWilld.Sousa (1993) argues that I. pavoniana should be used, because original specimen of I. sapindoides lacked flowers and is questionable. Tropicos specimens IDed by C. Romero in 2006 as I. pavoniana (also R. Gereult in 1994). Pennington synonomizes the latter under I. sapindoides and has no discussion of the problem.Inga pavonianainsa
Inga spectabilisingaspFabaceae-mimosoideae(Vahl) Willd.insp
Inga thibaudianaingathFabaceae-mimosoideaeDC.Included in Croat, but not recognized in the 50-ha plot until 2005, when it was separated from I. coclensis for the first time. Many trees previously known as I. coclensis had been alive since 1982, so we know that I. thibaudiana has always been part of the 50-ha plot.inth
Inga umbelliferaingaumFabaceae-mimosoideae(Vahl) Steud.inum
Inga unidentifiedingaunFabaceae-mimosoideaeThe Inga species I. coclensis and I. thibaudiana were reassessed in 2005, and many individuals of I. coclensis were reidentified as I. thibaudiana. Any tree known as I. coclensis that had died by 2005 could not be revisited, and all those had to be switched to I. unidentified.
Jacaranda copaiajac1coBignoniaceae(Aubl.) D.Donjacc
Jacaratia spinosajac2spCaricaceae(Aubl.) A.DC.Croat included this taxon, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until the 2015 census.jacs
Koanophyllon wetmoreikoanweAsteraceae(B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.koaw
Lacistema aggregatumlaciagLacistemataceae(P.J.Bergius) Rusbylaca
Lacmellea panamensislacmpaApocynaceae(Woodson) Markgr.lacp
Laetia proceralaetprSalicaceae(Poepp.) Eichlerlaep
Laetia thamnialaetthSalicaceaeL.laet
Lafoensia punicifolialafopuLythraceaeDC.lafp
Leandra dichotomaleandiMelastomataceae(Pav. ex D. Don) Cogn.Leandra is now moved within Miconia, but names are not yet transferred as of 2017.lead
Licania hypoleucalicahyChrysobalanaceaeBenth.lich
Licania platypuslicaplChrysobalanaceae(Hemsl.) Fritschlicp
Lindackeria laurinalindlaAchariaceaeC. Presllinl
Lonchocarpus heptaphylluslonclaFabaceae-papilionoideae(Poir.) DC.The species appears as L. latifolia in the 1996 paper then L. latifolius in the 2004 paper (the latter is correct). Croat knew this as L. pentaphyllus. Zamora2010a synonomized L. latifolius under this.Lonchocarpus latifolia
Lonchocarpus latifolius
Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus
Lozania pittierilozapiLacistemataceae(S.F.Blake) L.B.Sm.lozp
Luehea seemanniiluehseMalvaceaeTriana & Planch.lue1
Lycianthes maxoniilycimaSolanaceaeStandl.lycm
Maclura tinctoriamacltiMoraceae(L.) D.Don ex Steud.This was listed as Chlorophora tinctoria in the 2004 paper, but M. tinctoria in the 1996 paper. Neither name appears in Croat, and D'Arcy used Chlorophora. Our brief use of Chorophora was erroneous, since Berg's (2001) monograph clearly used Maclura.Chlorophora tinctoriachlt
Macrocnemum roseummacrglRubiaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.Formerly M. glabrescens, but that C. American form was lumped under this widespread S. American species (Taylor pers. comm.). Appears as M. glabrescens in 1996 paper. [I need Lorence 1999 on C. American Rubiaceae.]Macrocnemum glabrescensmacg
Malpighia romeroanamalproMalpighiaceaeCuatrec.malr
Maquira guianensismaqucoMoraceaeAubl.Formerly M. costaricana. We switched after Berg (2001), and the 2004 paper used M. guianensis. See notes with M. costaricana.Maquira costaricanamaqc
Margaritaria nobilismargnoPhyllanthaceaeL.f.Croat includes this taxon on BCI, but we did not identify in the 50-ha plot until 1990. A few individuals were in the census from the start, but remained unidentified until then.marn
Marila laxifloramar1laClusiaceaeRusbymarl
Maytenus schippiimaytscCelastraceaeLundellmays
Miconia affinismicoafMelastomataceaeDC.mic1
Miconia argenteamicoarMelastomataceae(Sw.) DC.mic2
Miconia dorsilobamicodoMelastomataceaeGleasonOriginally called morphospecies Miconia sp.15 2000, identified as M. dorsiloba in 2005. Does not appear in Croat.Miconia sp.15mico15
Miconia elatamicoelMelastomataceae(Sw.) DC.mice
Miconia hondurensismicohoMelastomataceaeDonn. Sm.mich
Miconia impetiolarismicoimMelastomataceae(Sw.) D. Don ex DC.mici
Miconia nervosamiconeMelastomataceae(Sm.) Trianamicn
Miconia prasinamicoprMelastomataceae(Sw.) DC.micp
Mosannona garwoodiimalmspAnnonaceaeChatrou & WelzenisThe official species name, maintaining Nancy Garwood's, described by Chatrou (1998). This correct version appeared in our 2004 paper. The species was thus first described from the BCI 50-ha plot. It is very distinctive, and common in the plot. It had several morphospecies names before the final description, including the genera Malmea and Cremastosperma. Croat called in Crematosperma sp., misspelling the genus.Crematosperma garwoods
Crematosperma sp.
Malmea garwood's
Malmea Nancy??
Malmea sp. nov.
Mosannona garwoods
Mouriri myrtilloidesmourmyMelastomataceae(Sw.) Poir.moum
Myrcia splendens tip. gatunensismyrcgaMyrtaceae(Sw.) DC.See sp.3, the morphospecies eventually identified as this. See also M. gatunensis, whose BCI specimens are now identified as M. splendens. However, plot 6 has many individuals of both this species and M. gatunensis growing side by side.Myrcia gatunensis
Myrospermum frutescensmyrofrFabaceae-papilionoideaeJacq.Not in Croat but we identified in 1982 census.myr2
Nectandra cissifloranectciLauraceaeNeesnecc
Nectandra fuzzynects1LauraceaeAn unidentified Lauraceae, tentatively placed in genus Nectandra. We have most consistently called it Nectandra fuzzy, but it was listed as Nectandra sp. nov. 1 in the 1996 paper, though we are not certain it's a novel species. The 50-ha plot has 11 individuals assigned the name. Nectandra sp.nov.1nec2
Nectandra lineatanectglLauraceae(Kunth) RohwerOur current identification for this Nectandra, following Rohwer (1993) who explains the source of Croat's mistaken identifcation as N. globosa.Nectandra globosanecg
Nectandra sp.4_(tiny_leaf)nects3LauraceaeThis extremely rare Lauraceae, with just one individual in the 1982 census of the 50-ha plot, was never identified, and we are not certain it is a Nectandra. The single individual died after 1985 and we have never seen it elsewhere, so it will probably never be identified. It had very small leaves, hence the morphospecies name, but it was listed as Nectandra sp. nov. 3 in the 1996 paper. The combination of sp. 4 and sp. 3 as parts of the name for the same morphospecies resulted from confusion caused by several other unidentified Nectandra in our Panama database. Nectandra sp._4
Nectandra sp.nov.3
Neea amplifolianeeaamNyctaginaceaeDonn.Sm.neea
Ochroma pyramidaleochrpyMalvaceae(Cav. ex Lam.) Urb.ochp
Ocotea cernuaocotceLauraceae(Nees) Mezococ
Ocotea oblongaocotobLauraceae(Meisn.) Mezocoo
Ocotea puberulaocotpuLauraceae(Rich.) NeesCroat called this O. pyramidata, but we changed to O. puberula by the late 1980s. Van der Weff had already named BCI specimens O. puberula in 1983. See Van der Werff (2002).Ocotea pyrimidataocop
Ocotea whiteiocotwhLauraceaeWoodsonCroat used O. skutchii, but that name was synonomized soon after his book. See van der Werff (2002), who acknowledged variability of O. whitei.Ocotea skutchiiocos
Oenocarpus maporaoenomaArecaceaeH.Karst.Formerly O. panamanus, in Croat and in the first census. Oenocarpus mapoura
Oenocarpus panamanus
Oreopanax capitatusoreocaAraliaceae(Jacq.) Decne. & Planch.Croat includes this, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until 2010. The sole individual then died by 2015.orec
Ormosia amazonicaormoamFabaceae-papilionoideaeDuckeNot in Croat but identified in 1982 census.orma
Ormosia coccineaormocrFabaceae-papilionoideae(Aubl.) Jacks.Current identification for a moderately common tree in the plot. Croat listed this form as O. croatii, an unofficial name, but it has been identified at Tropicos in 1978 (MO Dillon). N. Zamora confirmed in 2007 (pers. Comm. To N. Hensold).Ormosia croatiiormc
Ormosia macrocalyxormomaFabaceae-papilionoideaeDuckeormm
Ouratea lucensouraluOchnaceae(Kunth) Engl.ourl
Pachira sessilispochseMalvaceaeBenth.Bombacopsis sessilis according to Croat. In 1996 paper, it appeared as Pochota sessilis, but we updated to Pachira sessilis for 2004 paper. See genus discussion under P. quinataBombacopsis sessilis
Pochota sessilis
Palicourea acuminatapsycacRubiaceae(Benth.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria acumintata. Several psychotria moved to Palicourea due to improved character understanding (see Psych. acuminata).Palicourea cuspidata
Psychotria acuminata
Palicourea brachiatapsycb1Rubiaceae(Sw.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria brachiata, and appearing under that old name in 1996 paper.Psychotria brachiata
Palicourea cyanococcapsycpiRubiaceae(Seem. ex Dombrain) BorhidiPsychotria cyanococca
Psychotria pittieri
Palicourea deflexapsycdeRubiaceae(DC.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria deflexa, and appearing under that old name in 1996 and 2004 papers.Psychotria deflexa
Palicourea guianensispaliguRubiaceaeAubl.palg
Palicourea hoffmannseggianapsycfuRubiaceae(Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) BorhidiPsychotria furcata in Croat and the 1996 paper. Later Psychotria hoffmannseggiana before it was moved under Palicourea with many other Psychotria. Psychotria furcata
Psychotria hoffmannseggiana
Palicourea racemosapsycraRubiaceae(Aubl.) BorhidiFormerly Psychotria racemosa, and appearing under that old name in 1996 and 2004 papers.Psychotria racemosa
Pavonia dasypetalalopidaMalvaceaeTurcz.Formerly Lopimia dasypetala, following Croat, but this is the widely accepted classification, placing Lopimia within Pavonia (Fryxell). Hammel et al VI (2007) uses P. dasypetala without even mentioning Lopimia as synonym. This appears under the old L. dasypetala in 1996 and 2004 papers.Lopimia dasypetalapavd
Pentagonia macrophyllapentmaRubiaceaeBenth.penm
Perebea xanthochymaperexaMoraceaeH.Karst.perx
Picramnia latifoliapicrlaPicramniaceaeTul.picl
Piper aequalepipeaePiperaceaeVahlppae
Piper arboreumpipea1PiperaceaeAubl.ppa1
Piper colonensepipecuPiperaceaeC.DC.Piper culebranumppcu
Piper cordulatumpipecoPiperaceaeC. DC.ppco
Piper imperialepipeimPiperaceae(Miq.) C.DC.Croat had this correct, and our 1996 paper had it correct. At one point, the misspelling P. imperialis got in our database.Piper imperialisppim
Piper longispicumpipeloPiperaceaeC.DC.First identified in 50-ha plot in 2015. Not in Croat nor in 1996 or 2004 papers.
Piper perlasensepipepePiperaceaeYunck.pppe
Piper reticulatumpiperePiperaceaeL.ppre
Piper schiedeanumpipecaPiperaceaeSteud.Formerly P. carrilloanum in our data, and the 1996 paper, but we now follow Tebbs and use P. schiedeanum. However, a substantial confusion has arisen because Callejas identified many of Croat's BCI specimens as P. paulowniifolium. Flora Nicaragua by Callejas??Piper carrilloanumppca
Platymiscium pinnatumpla1piFabaceae-papilionoideae(Jacq.) Dugandplap
Platypodium eleganspla2elFabaceae-papilionoideaeVogelplae
Pochota quinatapochquBombacaceaeThis has been our most convoluted series of name changes. This was first Bombacopsis quinata, then Pochota quinata (which appears in 1996 paper), then Pachira quinata (in the 2004 paper), but now back to Pochota quinata. However, Pachira sessilis remains. See notes under Pachira quinata.Bombacopsis quinata
Pachira quinata
Pombalia prunifoliahybaprViolaceae(Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Paula-SouzaOriginally Hybanthus prunifolius following Croat. Several new genera will be needed for Hybanthus (de Paula Souza and Balland 2014). See notes with H. prunifolius.Hybanthus prunifoliushybp
Posoqueria latifoliaposolaRubiaceae(Rudge) Schult.posl
Poulsenia armatapoularMoraceae(Miq.) Standl.poua
Pourouma bicolorpourbiUrticaceaeMart.This was P. guianensis in Croat, but we followed Berg and changed to this by the late 1980s. P. bicolor appears in 1996 and 2004 papers. A Tropicos specimen now carries the name P. chocoana, but Berg used P. bicolor subsp. chocoana and this is still accepted everywhere (see Flora Mes, CR).Pourouma guianensispoug
Pouteria fossicolapoutfoSapotaceaeCronquistpouf
Pouteria reticulatapoutreSapotaceae(Engl.) EymaWe originally followed Croat and called this P. unilocularis, a C. American taxon. Pennington lumped it and 4 other species, and the combined group is widespread and variable. We switched before any publicacions, so this appears as P. reticulata in both 1996 and 2004 papers.Pouteria unilocularispouu
Pouteria stipitatapoutstSapotaceaeCronquistpou2
Prioria copaiferapri2coFabaceae-caesalpinioideaeGriseb.pric
Protium confusumprotspBurseraceae(Rose) PittierThis Protium could not be identified from Croat and was censused as a morphospecies until 2000, called Protium skinny; in the 1996 paper it was called Protium sp. nov. It was finally matched to P. confusum, not a new species.Protium skinny
Protium sp. nov.
Protium costaricenseprotcoBurseraceae(Rose) Engl.proc
Protium panamenseprotpaBurseraceae(Rose) I.M.Johnst.prop
Protium tenuifolium subsp. sessiliflorumprotteBurseraceaeEngl.A subspecies distinct from the BCI species, known only at two distant plots. Protium tenuifolium
Pseudobombax septenatumpse1seMalvaceae(Jacq.) Dugandpse1
Psidium friedrichsthalianumpsidfrMyrtaceae(O.Berg) Nied.psif
Psychotria chagrensispsycchRubiaceaeStandl.pych
Psychotria graciliflorapsycg1RubiaceaeBenth.Not in Croat but identified in 1982 census.pyg1
Psychotria grandispsycg3RubiaceaeSw.pyg3
Psychotria horizontalispsychoRubiaceaeSw.pyho
Psychotria limonensispsycliRubiaceaeK.Krausepyli
Psychotria marginatapsycmaRubiaceaeSw.pyma
Psychotria psychotriifoliapsycpsRubiaceae(Seem.) Standl.Croat includes this, but it did not appear in the 50-ha plot until 1995 and is thus not in the 1996 paper.
Psychotria tenuifoliapsycg2RubiaceaeSw.Formerly P. granadensis and published under that name in 1996 paper. Hamilton (1989) synonomized under this widespread S. American form, and Taylor (pers. comm.) agrees.Psychotria granadensispyg2
Pterocarpus hayesiipterroFabaceae-papilionoideaeHemsl.Formerly P. rohrii, and that old name was used in 1996 and 2004 papers.Pterocarpus rohriipter
Pterocarpus officinalispterofFabaceae-papilionoideaeJacq.A swamp species, rare on BCI, only 9 in plot and dying off. We listed it as P. belizensis in 1996 paper, but that appears to be a miscommunication. This has always been P. officianalis since Croat's identification.Pterocarpus belizense
Pterocarpus belizensis
Quararibea asterolepisquarasMalvaceaePittierWhether BCI specimens belong in Q. asterolepis subsp. stenophylla, Q. stenophylla, or Q. asterolepis, is unresolved at Tropicos.qua1
Quassia amaraquasamSimaroubaceaeL.qua2
Randia armatarandarRubiaceae(Sw.) DC.rana
Rauvolfia littoralisrauvliApocynaceaeRusbyDoes not appear in Croat. Discovered on BCI in 50-ha plot in 1995 census.
Rinorea sylvaticarinosyViolaceae(Seem.) Kuntzerin2
Rosenbergiodendron formosumrandfoRubiaceae(Jacq.) Fagerl.Formerly Randia formosa and appearing as such in 1996 paper, changed to Rosenbergiodendron formosum by 2004 paper. This and 3 other species were shown to be outside Randia (DNA and morphology). The species circumscription was nearly unchanged, though a Guyana segregate was split, so the new R. formosum has a slightly smaller range (Taylor pers. comm.).Randia formosaranf
Sapium broadleafsapispEuphorbiaceaeSapium sp 1
Sapium sp. nov.
Sapium glandulosumsapiauEuphorbiaceae(L.) MorongKrujit synonomized S. aucuparium with this. R. Liesner identifed BCI specimens as S. glandulosum. Sapium aucuparium
Sapium caudatum
Schefflera morototonisch2moAraliaceae(Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & FrodinWe originally used Didymopanax morototoni for this, following Croat. But Frodin (1975) moved the entire genus Didymopanax into Schefflera, as new species added blurred distinctions. A DNA phylogeny confirmed this (Fiaschi & Plunkett 2011). We had the correct S. morototoni in the 1996 and 2004 papers.Didymopanax morototonididm
Schizolobium parahybaschipaFabaceae-caesalpinioideae(Vell.) S.F. BlakeThis is the correct spelling of Croat's S. parahybum. We had the bad spelling in 1996 paper but corrected in database afterwards.Schizolobium parahybumschp
Senna dariensissenndaFabaceae-caesalpinioideae(Britton & Rose) H.S. Irwin & BarnebyFormerly Cassia fruticosa, but we had corrected to Senna by the 1996 and 2004 papers. Irwin and Barneby 1982 split Cassia into 3 genera, including Senna. Reviewed in Marazzi, with DNA phylogeny confirming monophyly of Senna. Known as S. dariensis var. gatunensis in Tropicos.Cassia fruticosacasf
Simarouba amarasimaamSimaroubaceaeAubl.sima
Siparuna cristatasipacrSiparunaceae(Poepp. & Endl.) A. DC.On BCI, this was formerly identified as S. guianensis, following Croat. Renner re-identified the Tropicos on BCI specimens as S. cristata in 1999. See notes with S. guianensis.Siparuna guianensissipg
Siparuna pauciflorasipapaSiparunaceae(Beurl.) A. DC.sipp
Sloanea terniflorasloateElaeocarpaceae(Moc. & Sessé ex DC.) Standl.sloa3
Socratea exorrhizasocrexArecaceae(Mart.) H.Wendl.We used this in 1996 and 2004 papers, changing from Croat, who called this S. durissima. See notes there. Henderson (1997) lumped S. durissima with the S. American S. exorrhiza.Socratea durissimasoce
Solanum arboreumsolaarSolanaceaeDunalsol2
Solanum asperumsolaasSolanaceaeRich.sola
Solanum circinatumcyphhaSolanaceaeBohsBohs (1995) collapsed entire genus Cyphomandra into Solanum. DNA phylogeny shows both it and Lycopersicon nested within Solanum. No change in species circumscription.Cyphomandra hartwegiicyph
Solanum hayesiisolahaSolanaceaeFernaldsolh
Solanum lepidotumsolastSolanaceaeDunalNee says Panama and Andes specimens should be this, while E. Brazil specimens are different. So Brazil specimens were first argenteum, changed to lepidotum by Soto, changed back to argenteum by NeeSolanum argenteum
Solanum steyemarkii
Solanum steyermarkii
Sorocea affinissoroafMoraceaeHemsl.sora
Spachea membranaceaspacmeMalpighiaceaeCuatrec.spam
Spondias mombinsponmoAnacardiaceaeL.spom
Spondias radlkoferisponraAnacardiaceaeDonn.Sm.spor
Sterculia apetalasterapMalvaceae(Jacq.) H.Karst.stea
Stylogyne turbacensisstylstMyrsinaceae(Kunth) MezFormerly S. standleyi, in both 1996 and 2004 paper. We since switched to S. turbacensis, following the monograph of Ricketson and Pipoly (1997).Stylogyne standleyistys
Swartzia simplex var. continentalisswars2Fabaceae-papilionoideae(Sw.) Spreng.Formerly S. s. var. ochnaceae, and appearing as the latter in 1996 and 2004 papers. Swartzia simplex var. ochnaceaswa2
Swartzia simplex var. grandifloraswars1Fabaceae-papilionoideae(Sw.) Spreng.Formerly S. s. var. ochnaceae, and appearing as the latter in 1996 and 2004 papers. swa1
Symphonia globuliferasympglClusiaceaeL.f.symg
Tabebuia roseatab1roBignoniaceae(Bertol.) DC.tabr
Tabernaemontana arboreatab2arApocynaceaeRose ex J.D.Sm.taba
Tabernaemontana grandiflorastemgrApocynaceaeJacq.Formerly Stemmadenia grandiflora, appearing as such in 1996 and 2004 papers. We are following Morales and placing it in Tabernaemontana.Stemmadenia grandiflorasteg
Tachigali panamensistachveFabaceae-caesalpinioideaevan der Werff & N.ZamoraFormerly T. versicolor, following Croat, but van der Werff in 2010 erected this new name for Panama specimens. This appears as T. versicolor in 1996 and 2004 papers.Tachigalia versicolor
Tachigali versicolor
Talisia croatiitaliprSapindaceaeAcev.-Rodr.Formerly T. princeps, but Acevedo-Rodriguez described in 2003, Fl. Neotrop.Talisia princepstalp
Talisia nervosatalineSapindaceaeRadlk.taln
Terminalia amazoniatermamCombretaceae(J.F.Gmel.) ExellWe followed Croat’s error and spelled this incorrectly as T. amazonica through the 1996 paper. It was corrected in 2004 paper.Terminalia amazonicatera
Terminalia oblongatermobCombretaceae(Ruiz & Pav.) Steud.Our name since the plot began. Croat used T. chiriquensis, but that was synonomized before 1982. See Fl. Nic.Terminalia chiriquensistero
Ternstroemia tepezapoteterntePentaphylacaceaeSchltdl. & Cham.tert
Tetragastris panamensistet2paBurseraceae(Engl.) Kuntzetet2
Tetrathylacium johanseniitet4joSalicaceaeStandl.tetj
Theobroma cacaotheocaMalvaceaeL.thec
Thevetia ahouaithevahApocynaceae(L.) A.DC.thea
Tocoyena pittieritocopiRubiaceae(Standl.) Standl.tocp
Trattinnickia asperatratasBurseraceae(Standl.) Swarttraa
Trema integerrimatreminCannabaceae(Beurl.) Standl.Croat mentioned this taxon, but did not consider it present on BCI. In 2010, we reassessed the genus and recognized several individuals in the 50-ha plot as belonging to T. integerrima, formerly identified as T. micrantha. See notes with Trema unidentified.
Trema micranthatremmiCannabaceae(L.) BlumeAll Trema in the 50-ha plot were identified as this species until 2010. But several individuals that had been alive prior to 2010 (one back to 1990) were reidentified, forcing us to reassess the genus. See notes with Trema unidentified.trem
Trema unidentifiedtremspCannabaceaeBecause we reassessed the genus in 2010, any individuals of Trema that had died earlier could not be reidentified, and all are now called Trema unidentified.
Trichanthera giganteatri1giAcanthaceae(Bonpl.) Neestrig
Trichilia pallidatri2paMeliaceaeSw.Listed as T. montana in Croat, but we had changed to T. pallida before the plot began (Pennington 1981).Trichilia montanatri1
Trichilia tuberculatatri2tuMeliaceae(Triana & Planch.) C. DC.Listed as T. cipo in Croat, but we had corrected to T. tuberculata before the plot began (Pennington 1981).Trichilia cipotri3
Trichospermum galeottiitri4gaMalvaceae(Turcz.) Kosterm.Croat listed as T. mexicanum, but that name was obsolete by the early 1980s. BCI specimens renamed by Meijer in 1980 (see Fl. Nic.). Trichospermum mexicanumtri6
Triplaris cumingianatripcuPolygonaceaeFisch. & C.A.Mey.tric
Trophis caucanaolmeasMoraceae(Pittier) C.C. BergOriginally Olmedia aspera, and that older name appeared in 1996 paper. Updated to Trophis caucana, following Berg (1988). See notes under Olmedia.Olmedia asperaolma
Trophis racemosatropraMoraceae(L.) Urb.tror
Turpinia occidentalisturpocTapisciaceae(Sw.) G.Donturo
Unidentified speciesunidenUnknown
Unonopsis pittieriunonpiAnnonaceaeSaff.unop
Urera bacciferaurerbaUrticaceae(L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd.Not in Croat but identified in 1982 census.ureb
Vachellia melanocerasacacmeFabaceae(Beurl.) Seigler & EbingerFormerly Acacia melanoceras through 2015, following Croat’s originally name. A long-running and heated debate finally ended around 2010 with the American Acacia settling in two new genera, Vachellia and Senegalia. Acacia melanocerasaca1
Vasconcellea caulifloracaricaCaricaceae(Jacq.) A.DC.This species appears in Croat as Carica cauliflora, but the species was not found in the 50-ha plot until 2010. We identified it in other plots in the 1990s, though, using the old name, but it is now updated to V. califlora in our database. (Badillo 2000 in Ernstia).Carica caulifloracarc
Verbesina giganteaverbgiAsteraceaeJacq.Croat included this taxon, but it was not identified in the 50-ha plot until the 2000 census and thus does not appear in 1996 paper.
Virola multifloravirospMyristicaceae(Standl.) A.C.Sm.Labeled as unidentified morphospecies V. bozo in original BCI census, and listed as Virola sp. nov. in 1996 paper. By the 2004 paper, it was identified and appears as V. mutliflora there.Virola bozo
Virola sp. nov.
Virola nobilisvirosuMyristicaceaeA.C. Sm.Croat published V. surinamensis for the tallest BCI Virola, but lists V. nobilis as a synonym, and originally identified specimens as V. nobilis. Later, Gentry incorrectly reidentified as V. surinamensis. Rodriguez in 2007 identified BCI specimens as V. nobilis, but Tropicos has both names in Panama and Costa Rica. Virola surinamensisvir2
Virola sebiferaviroseMyristicaceaeAubl.vir1
Vismia bacciferavismbaClusiaceae(L.) Triana & Planch.vis1
Vismia billbergianavismbiClusiaceaeBeurl.vis2
Vismia macrophyllavismmaClusiaceaeKunthvism
Vochysia ferrugineavochfeVochysiaceaeMart.vocf
Xylopia macranthaxyl1maAnnonaceaeTriana & Planch.xylm
Xylosma chloranthaxyl2chSalicaceaeDonn.Sm.Croat misspelled this X. chloranthum and we repeated the error in the 1996 paper.Xylosma chloranthumxylc
Xylosma oligandraxyl2olSalicaceaeDonn. Sm.Croat misspelled this X. oligandrum and we repeated the error in the 1996 paper.Xylosma oligandrumxylo
Zanthoxylum acuminatumzantprRutaceae(Sw.) Sw.Originally Z. procerum in Croat, and in our 1996 paper under that name. We then used Z. juniperinum for some time, and that's how it appeared in 2004 paper. Reynel identified all BCI specimens at Tropicos as this in 1993, with subsp. juniperinum.Zanthoxylum procerumzan2
Zanthoxylum ekmaniizantbeRutaceae(Urb.) AlainFormerly Z. belizense, reidentified by Reynel in 1993 at Tropicos.Zanthoxylum belizensezanb
Zanthoxylum panamensezantp1RutaceaeP.WilsonZanthoxylum juniperinumzan1
Zanthoxylum setulosumzantseRutaceaeP.Wilsonzans
Zuelania guidoniazuelguSalicaceae(Sw.) Britton & Millsp.zueg